ESTONIAN ACADEMY
PUBLISHERS
eesti teaduste
akadeemia kirjastus
PUBLISHED
SINCE 1984
 
Oil Shale cover
Oil Shale
ISSN 1736-7492 (Electronic)
ISSN 0208-189X (Print)
Impact Factor (2020): 0.934

SOURCE ROCK POTENTIAL OF LOWER-MIDDLE MIOCENE LACUSTRINE DEPOSITS: EXAMPLE OF THE KÜÇÜKKUYU FORMATION, NW TURKEY; pp. 313–334

Full article in PDF format | doi: 10.3176/oil.2015.4.03

Author
AYŞE BOZCU

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine the geological, strati­graphic and organic geochemical features of the Küçükkuyu Formation out­cropping on Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. The Lower-Middle Miocene forma­tion crops out around the Gulf of Edremit and near Bayramiç-Çan in the north of the Kazdağ Mountains. The unit is composed of shale, siltstone and sandstone intercalations. The shale is bituminous and represents a potential source rock in the region.
   Shale samples from the formation were investigated. Rock-Eval pyrolysis, vitrinite reflectance (Ro %), gas chromatography (GC), stable C isotope and total sulfur measurements were carried out. The shale is characterized by high total organic carbon (TOC) values (0.27 to 7.44 wt%, average 1.69 wt%), indicating a good potential source rock. The kerogen types are II and III, indicating the shale to be gas and oil-prone. Tmax values are between 352 and 453 °C, the average value suggesting early catagenesis. The pristane/ phytane (Pr/Ph) values reveal suboxic and anoxic environments. Carbon preference index (CPI) and C isotope values reveal terrestrial OM.
   Geological and stratigraphic evaluations and total sulfur (TS) figures indicate that the Küçükkuyu Formation was deposited in a suboxic-anoxic, freshwater environment (lacustrine), developing brackish water conditions from time to time.


References

  1. Saka, K. Geology and Hydrocarbon Possibility of Edremit Gulf and Sur­round­ings of Neogene. Turkish Petroleum Corporation Research Group Technical Archive, unpublished technical report, 1979, Report No. 1341, 17 pp (in Turkish).

  2. Siyako, M., Bürkan, K. A., Okay, A. I. Tertiary geology and hydrocarbon potential of the Biga and Gelibolu Peninsulas. Turkish Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, 1989, 1, 183–199 (in Turkish with English abstract).

  3. Kesgin, Y. Tertiary Geology and Sedimentology of the Northeastern Aegean Offshore and Nearshore Regions. PhD Thesis, Ankara University, 2001, 265 pp (in Turkish with English abstract).

  4. Çiftçi, N. B., Temel, R. Ö., Terzioğlu, M. N. Neogene stratigraphy and hydro­carbon system of the region surrounding the Gulf of Edremit, NW Anatolia, Turkey. Turkish Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, 2004, 16, 81–104 (in Turkish with English abstract).

  5. Çiftçi N. B., Temel, R. Ö., İztan, H. Hydrocarbon occurrences in western Anatolian (Aegean) graben basins, Turkey: is there a working petroleum system? Am. Assoc. Petr. B., 2010, 94(12), 18271857.

  6. Bingöl, E. Contribution a l’Étude Geologique de la Partie Centrale et Sud-East du Massif de Kazdağ (Turquie). Thèse du doctorat, Université de Nancy, 1968, 189 pp.

  7. Bingöl, E., Akyürek, B., Korkmazer, B. Geology of the Biga Peninsula and some characteristics of the Karakaya Formation. Proceedings of the 50th Anniversary of Turkish Republic Earth Sciences Congress, Mineral Research and Exploration Institute of Turkey Publications, 1975, 70–75 (in Turkish).

  8. Okay, A. I., Siyako, M., Bürkan, K. A. Geology and tectonic evolution of the Biga Peninsula. Turkish Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, 1990, 2, 83–121 (in Turkish with English abstract).

  9. Duru, M., Pehlivan, Ş., Şentürk, Y., Yavaş, F., Kar, H. New Results on the lithostratigraphy of the Kazdağ Massif in northwest Turkey. Turk. J. Earth Sci., 2004, 13, 177–186.

10. Şengün, F., Çalık, A. Metamorphic features and correlation of the Çamlıca metamorphics (Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey). Geological Bulletin of Turkey, 2007, 50, 1–16 (in Turkish with English abstract).

11. Ercan, T. Geological, archaeological and historical features of Biga and Gallipoli peninsulas with Gökçeada, Tenedos and Tavşan islands. Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration, Earth Sciences and Culture Series, 1996, 1, 71 pp (in Turkish).

12. Yılmaz, Y., Karacık, Z. Geology of the northern side of the Gulf of Edremit and its tectonic significance for the development of the Aegean grabens. Geodin. Acta, 2001, 14(1–3), 31–43.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0985-3111(00)01060-3

13. Beccaletto, L. Geology, Correlations and Geodynamic Evolution of the Biga Peninsula (NW Turkey). PhD Thesis, University of Lausanne, 2004, 146 pp.

14. İnci, U. The stratigraphy and organic properties of Demirci and Burhaniye bituminous shales. Bulletin of the Geological Congress of Turkey, 1984, 5, 27–40 (in Turkish with English abstract).

15. Tissot, B. P., WelteD. H. Petroleum Formation and Occurrence. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-96446-6

16. Tissot, B. P., Welte, D. H. Petroleum Formation and Occurrence, Second revised and enlarged edition, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1984.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-87813-8

17. Vandenbroucke, M., Largeau, C. Kerogen origin, evolution and structure. Org. Geochem., 2007, 38, 719–833.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.orggeochem.2007.01.001

18. Peters, K. E., Cassa, M. R. Applied source rock geochemistry. In: The Petroleum System - From Source to Trap (Magoon, L. B., Dow, W. G., eds.), AAPG Memoir, 1994, 60, 93–120.

19. Peters, K. H., Moldowan, J. M. The Biomarker Guide. Interpreting Molecular Fossils in Petroleum and Ancient Sediments, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1993.

20. Peters, K. E., Walters, C. C., Moldowan, J. M. The Biomarker Guide: Bio­markers and Isotopes in the Environment and Human History, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2005, 1155 pp.

21. Didyk, B. M., Simoneit, B. R. T., Brassell, S. C., Eglinton, G. Organic geo­chemical indicators of paleoenvironmental conditions of sedimentation. Nature, 1978, 272, 216–222.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/272216a0

22. MeyersP. A. Preservation of elemental and isotopic source identification of sedimentary organic matter. Chem. Geol., 1994, 114(3–4), 289–302.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0009-2541(94)90059-0

23. Leventhal, J. S. An interpretation of carbon and sulfur relationships in Black Sea sediments as indicator of environments of deposition. Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac., 1983, 47(1), 133–137.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(83)90097-2

24. Berner, R. A. Sedimentary pyrite formation: an update. Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac., 1984, 48(4), 605–615.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(84)90089-9

25. Berner, R. A., Raiswell, R. C/S method for distinguishing freshwater from marine sedimentary rocks. Geology, 1984, 12(6), 365–368.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1984)12<365:CMFDFF>2.0.CO;2

26. Okay, A. I., Satır, M. Coeval plutonism and metamorphism in a latest Oligocene metamorphic core complex in northwest Turkey. Geolog. Mag., 2000, 137(5), 495–516.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0016756800004532

27. Proedrou, P., Papaconstantinou, C. M. Prinos Basin – A model for oil explora­tion. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Greece, 2004, 36, 327–333.

28. Çiftçi, N. B., Bozkurt, E. Evolution of the Miocene sedimentary fill of the Gediz graben, SW Turkey. Sediment. Geol., 2009, 216(3–4), 49–79.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sedgeo.2009.01.004

29. Yılmaz, Y, Genç, Ş. C., Gürer, Ö. F., Bozcu, M., Yılmaz, K., Karacık, Z., Altunkaynak, Ş., Elmas, A. When did the western Anatolian grabens begin to develop? In: Tectonics and Magmatism in Turkey and Surrounding Area (Bozkurt, E, Winchester, J. A., Piper, J. D. A., eds.), Geological Society of London Special Publication, 2000, 173, 353–384.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1144/gsl.sp.2000.173.01.17

30. Yazman, M. K., Çopur, S., Özdemir, İ., İztan, Y. H., Sayılı, A., Batı, Z. Geology, Oil Possibilities of Büyük Menderes Graben (Germencik from Denizli) and Nazilli-1 Exploration Well, TPAO (Turkish Petroleum Corporation) Technical Report, 2004, Report No. 4546, 71 pp (in Turkish).

31. Gürer, O. F., Bozcu, M., Yılmaz, K., Yılmaz, Y. Neogene basin development around Söke-Kuşadası (western Anatolia) and its bearing on tectonic development of the Aegean region. Geodin. Acta, 2001, 14(1–3), 57–69.

32. İztan, H., Yazman, M. Geology and hydrocarbon potential of the Alaşehir (Manisa) area, western Turkey. In: Proceedings of International Earth Sciences Congress, Aegean Region (Savaşçın, M. Y., Eronat, A. H., eds.), 1990, 327–333.

33. Seyitoğlu, G., Scott, B. C. The age of the Büyük Menderes graben (west Turkey) and its tectonic implications. Geol. Mag., 1992, 129(2), 239–242.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S001675680000830X

34. Ediger, V. Ş., Batı, Z., Yazman, M. Paleopalynology of possible hydrocarbon source rocks of the Alaşehir-Turgutlu area in the Gediz graben (western Anatolia). Turkish Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, 1996, 8, 94–112 (in Turkish with English abstract).

35. Purvis, M., Robertson, A. Miocene sedimentary evolution of the NE-SW–trending Selendi and Gördes basins, W Turkey: implications for extensional processes. Sediment. Geol., 2005, 174(1–2), 31–62.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sedgeo.2004.11.002

36. Okay, A. I., Satır, M. Upper Cretaceous eclogite-facies metamorphic rocks from the Biga Peninsula, Northwest Turkey. Turk. J. Earth Sci., 2000, 9, 47–56.

37. Şengün, F., Yiğitbaş, E., Tunç, İ. O. Geology and tectonic emplacement of eclogite and blueschists, Biga peninsula, northwest Turkey, Turk. J. Earth Sci., 2011, 20, 273–285.

38. Okay, A. I., Siyako, M., Bürkan, K. A. Geology and Tectonic Evolution of the Biga Peninsula. TPAO (Turkish Petroleum Corporation) technical report, 1990. Report No. 2746, 107 pp (in Turkish).

39. Espitalie, J., Deroo, G., Marquis, F. La pyrolyse Rock-Eval et ses applications. Rev. I. Fr. Petrol., 1985, 40(5), 563–579; 40(6), 755–784.


Back to Issue