ESTONIAN ACADEMY
PUBLISHERS
eesti teaduste
akadeemia kirjastus
PUBLISHED
SINCE 1984
 
Oil Shale cover
Oil Shale
ISSN 1736-7492 (Electronic)
ISSN 0208-189X (Print)
Impact Factor (2020): 0.934

EVALUATION OF THE HYDROCARBON POTENTIAL, MINERAL MATRIX EFFECT AND GAS-OIL RATIO POTENTIAL OF OIL SHALE FROM THE KABALAR FORMATION, GÖYNÜK, TURKEY; pp. 25–41

Full article in PDF format | doi: 10.3176/oil.2015.1.03

Authors
ALI SARI, ARASH VOSOUGHİ MORADİ, YAĞMUR KULAKSIZ, AYŞE KÜBRA YURTOĞLU

Abstract

The present study focuses on the evaluation of the hydrocarbon potential, retention effect of mineral matrix and the gas-oil ratio potential (GORP) of oil shale from the Kabalar Formation in the Göynük area, Turkey, to assess the quality of its organic matter. The results of Rock-Eval pyrolysis generally suggest relatively high organic carbon content (TOC) for Kabalar oil shale, ranging from 1 to 13.23 wt%. These values are consistent with data on source rocks that may have a good to excellent source rock potential. The kerogen in Kabalar oil shale was characterized based on Hydrogen Index (HI) value, S2/S3 ratio, and organic petrographic studies. The results indicate that most of the studied samples are characterized as con­taining oil prone (type I and II kerogen) organic matter. The low spore color index (SCI) and high S2/S3 ratio with a commonly low Tmax (< 440 °C) demonstrate that most of the oil shale samples are in the immature to early mature stages of thermal maturity. After calculating the transformation ratio (TR), the oil shale samples were divided into mature (TR = 0.2) and immature (TR = 0) subdivisions in order to take the maturity effects on organic carbon content (TOC) and hydrocarbons retention into account and also select the appropriate GORP overlay. After correcting the mineral matrix effect in the immature subdivision, the mean HI value of the Kabalar Formation increased by about 268 and reached 855 mg HC/g TOC. Due to the relatively higher thermal maturity values, the mineral matrix effect is minimized in the mature subdivision. Based on GORP factor, the TOC(live) of Kabalar oil shale is composed only of oil prone material, which is in good agreement with the results inferred from organic petrographic and pyrolysis studies.


References

  1. Ediger, V. S., Tatlıdil, H. Forecasting the primary energy demand in Turkey and analysis of cyclic patterns. Energ. Convers. Manage., 2002, 43(4), 473–487.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0196-8904(01)00033-4

  2. Şener, M., Şengüler, İ. Geological, mineralogical and geochemical charac­teristics of oil shale bearing deposits in the Hatıldağ oil shale field, Göynük, Turkey. Fuel, 1998, 77(8), 871–880.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0016-2361(97)00253-6

  3. MTA, General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration. Lignite, Asphaltite, Hard Coal, Oil Shale and Uranium Reserves in the World and in Turkey. MTA Report, 1993. MTA, Ankara, Turkey (in Turkish).

  4. Kök, M. V., Sengüler, I., Hufnagel, H., Sonel, N. Thermal and geochemical investi­gation of Seyitömer oil shale. Thermochim. Acta, 2001, 371(1–2), 111–119.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0040-6031(01)00415-4

  5. Şener, M., Şengüler, I., Kök, M. V. Geological considerations for the economic evaluation of oil shale deposits in Turkey. Fuel, 1995, 74(7), 999–1003.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0016-2361(95)00045-7

  6. Tekin, E., Sarı, A. Morphology of hydrocarbon droplets from bituminious shales of the Kabalar Formation (Göynük-Bolu). Geosound, 1999, 35, 1–13 (in Turkish).

  7. Akkus, I., Sümer, A., Sengüler, I., Taka, M., Pekatan, R. The Drill Logs of Beypazari-Çayirhan Oil Shale Field. MTA Report, 1982. MTA, Ankara, Turkey (in Turkish).

  8. Saner, S. The depositional associations of Upper Cretaceous-Paleocene-Eocene Times in Central Sakarya and petroleum exploration possibilities. In: Proceed. Fourth Petroleum Congress of Turkey, 1978, 83–95 (in Turkish).

  9. Hufnagel, H. Investigation of Oil Shale Deposits in Western Turkey. Technical Report, Part 2. Project No. 84.2127.3. BRG, Hannover, 1991.

10. Çimen, O., Koç., Ş., Sarı, A. Rare earth element (REE) geochemistry and genesis of oil shales around Dağhacılar village, Göynük-Bolu, Turkey. Oil Shale, 2013, 30(3), 419–440.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3176/oil.2013.3.04

11. Sarı, A., Aliyev, S. A., 2005. Source rock evaluation of the lacustrine oil shale bearing deposits, Göynük/Bolu,Turkey. Energ. Source., 2005, 27(3), 279–298.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00908310490441980

12. Dahl, B., Bojesen-Koefoed, J., Holm, A., Justwan, H., Rasmussen, E., Thom­sen, E., 2004. A new approach to interpreting Rock-Eval S2 and TOC data for kerogen quality assessment. Org. Geochem., 2004, 35(11–12), 1461–1477.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.orggeochem.2004.07.003

13. Jurg, J. W., Eisma, E. Petroleum hydrocarbons: generation from fatty acid. Science, 1964, 144(3625), 1451–1452.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.144.3625.1451

14. Almon, W. R. Petroleum-Forming Reactions: Clay Catalyzed Fatty Acid Decarboxylation. PhD Thesis, Univ. Missouri-Columbia, 1974, 135 pp.

15. Espitalie, J., Madec, M., Tissot, B. Role of mineral matrix in kerogen pyrolysis: influence on petroleum generation and migration. Am. Assoc. Petr. Geol. B., 1980, 64(1), 59–66.

16. Saner, S. Paleogeography interpretation and qualification of Mudurnu-Göynük Basin after the deposition of the Jurassic. Bull. Geol. Soc. Turkey, 1980, 23, 39–52 (in Turkish).

17. Tissot, B. P., Welte, D. H. Petroleum Formation and Occurrence: A New Approach to Oil and Gas Explora­tion. Springer, Berlin, 1978, 583 pp.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-96446-6

18. Lafargue, E., Marquis, F., Pillot, D. Rock-Eval 6 applications in hydrocarbon exploration, production, and soil contamination studies. Rev. I. Fr. Petrol., 1998, 53(4), 421–437.

19. Peters, K. E., Cassa, M. R. Applied source rock geochemistry. In: The Petroleum System – From Source to Trap (Magoon, L. B., Dow, W. G., eds.), American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 60, Tulsa, OK, 1994, 93–119.

20. Maravelis, A., Zelilidis, A. Organic geochemical characteristics of the late Eocene–early Oligocene submarine fans and shelf deposits on Lemnos Island, NE Greece. J. Petr. Sci. Eng., 2010, 71, 160–168.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2010.01.010

21. Waples, D. W. Reappraisal of anoxia and organic richness, with emphasis on Cretaceous of North Atlantic. Am. Assoc. Petr. Geol. B., 1983, 67(6), 963–978.

22. Langford, F. F., Blanc-Valleron, M. M. Interpreting Rock-Eval pyrolysis data using graphs of pyrolizable hydrocarbons vs. total organic carbon. Am. Assoc. Petr. Geol. B., 1990, 74(6), 799–804.

23. Sarı, A., Koç, S. Scientific Investigation and Economic Potential of Bituminous Shale Field in Bolu-Göynük-Hasanlar and Suburbs (Hatıldağı), Turkish Coal Institute. Internal report, No.1, 2012 (in Turkish).

24. Espitalie, J., Deroo, G., Marquis, F. (1985). La pyrolyse Rock-Eval et ses applications. Rev. I. Fr. Pétrol., Part I, 1985, 40(5), 563–578, Part II, 40(6), 755–784, Part III, 1986, 41(1), 73–89.

25. Jin, H., Sonnenberg, S. A. Source Rock Potential of the Bakken Shales in the Williston Basin, North Dakota and Montana. Poster session presented at American Association of Petroleum Geologists Annual Convention and Exhibition, Long Beach, California, USA, April 22–25, 2012.

26. Collins, A. The 1–10 Spore Colour Index (SCI) scale: a universally applicable colour maturation scale, based on graded, picked palynomorphs. Mededelingen Rijks Geologische Dienst, 1991, 45, 39–47.

27. Peters, K. E. Guidelines for evaluating petroleum source rock using programmed pyrolysis. Am. Assoc. Petr. Geol. B., 1986, 70(3), 318–329.

28. Hunt, J. M. Petroleum Geochemistry and Geology, 2nd ed. W. H. Freeman and Company, New York, 1996.


Back to Issue