ESTONIAN ACADEMY
PUBLISHERS
eesti teaduste
akadeemia kirjastus
PUBLISHED
SINCE 1984
 
Oil Shale cover
Oil Shale
ISSN 1736-7492 (Electronic)
ISSN 0208-189X (Print)
Impact Factor (2021): 1.442
ADSORPTION OF LEAD AND CADMIUM IONS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY MODIFIED OIL SHALE ASH; pp. 268–278
PDF | doi: 10.3176/oil.2012.3.06

Authors
BO-LIN ZHU, ZONG-MING XIU, NA LIU, HAI-TAO BI, CHUN-XIN LV
Abstract

Oil shale ash, which is a by-product from oil shale processing, was converted into an adsorbent by alkali hydrothermal activation using sodium hydroxide. The alkali-treated ash was studied for its capacity to remove lead and cadmium ions from aqueous solutions. The results of the study showed that the adsorption of lead and cadmium ions by the modified oil shale ash depended on adsorbent concentration, ash particle size, contact time and pH of solution. When the initial concentration of an aqueous solution was 10mg/L and that of the adsorbent 5g/L, 91% of lead and cadmium ions was removed from the solution. The adsorption isotherm data of the alkali-treated oil shale ash were fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model with R2 of 0.9995 and 0.9963 at 20 ℃. The scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis showed that after modification the porosity of the ash increased and, as a result, complex spatial networks were formed, which provided sufficient space for the adsorption of lead and cadmium ions. The energy dispersive spectrometric (EDS) analysis confirmed the adsorption of lead and cadmium ions in the modified oil shale ash sample, while in the control sample these elements were absent. Its excellent adsorption capacity and efficiency makes the alkali-treated oil shale ash a good candidate for heavy metals removal from wastewater.

References

  1. Srivastava,V. C., Mall, I. D., Mishra, I. M. Removal of cadmium(II) and zinc(II) metal ions from binary aqueous solution by rice husk ash. Colloid Surface A, 2008, 312(2–3), 172–184.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2007.06.048

  2. Xu, S., Hu, X., Li, F., Wang, Y., Ye, H., Zhonga, A., Shi, C. Revaluation of soil heavy metals and pollution in Zhangshi irrigation area of Shenyang and analysis of Cd forms in soils. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 2007, 18, 2144–2148 (in Chinese).

  3. Machado, N. R. C. F., Miotto, D. M. M. Synthesis of Na-A and -X zeolites from oil shale ash. Fuel 2005, 84(18), 2289–2294.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2005.05.003

  4. Ho, Y.-S., Ofomaja, A. E. Kinetics and thermodynamics of lead ion sorption on palm kernel fibre from aqueous solution. Process Biochem., 2005, 40(11), 3455–3461.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2005.02.017

  5. Wang, S. B., Soudi, M., Li, L., Zhu, Z. H. Coal ash conversion into effective adsorbents for removal of heavy metals and dyes from wastewater. J. Hazard. Mater., 2006, 133(1–3), 243–251.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2005.10.034

  6. Shawabkeh, R., Al-Harahsheh, A., Hami, M., Khlaifat, A. Conversion of oil shale ash into zeolite for cadmium and lead removal from wastewater. Fuel, 2004, 83(7–8), 981–985.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2003.10.009

  7. Kõiv, M., Liira, M., Mander, Ü., Mõtlep, R., Vohla, C., Kirsimäe, K. Phosphorus removal using Ca-rich hydrated oil shale ash as filter material – The effect of different phosphorus loadings and wastewater compositions. Water Res., 2010, 44(18), 5232–5239.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2010.06.044

  8. An, B. C., Wang, W. Y., Ji, G. J., Gan, S. C., Gao, G. M., Xu, J. J., Li, G. H. Preparation of nano-sized α-Al2O3 from oil shale ash. Energy, 2010, 35(1), 45–49.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2009.08.027

  9. Sun, T., Liu, L. L., Wang, L. L., Zhang, Y. P. Preparation of a novel inorganic polymer coagulant from oil shale ash. J. Hazard. Mater., 2011, 185(2–3), 1264–1272.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.10.041

10. Panday, K. K., Prasad, G., Singh, V. N. Copper(II) removal from aqueous solu­tions by fly ash. Water Res., 1985, 19(7), 869–873.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0043-1354(85)90145-9

11. Bayat, B. Comparative study of adsorption properties of Turkish fly ashes I. The case of nickel(II), copper(II) and zinc(II). J. Hazard. Mater., 2002, 95(3), 251–273.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3894(02)00141-3

12. Liu, B. Pollution characteristics and environmental risk in key sewage irrigation regions of Liaoning province. Journal of Meteorology and Environment, 2008, 24, 67–71 (in Chinese).

13. Wu, G. W., Koliadima, A., Her, Y. S, Matijević, E. Adsorption of dyes on nanosize modified silica particles. J. Colloid Interf. Sci., 1997, 195(1), 222–228.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jcis.1997.5156

14. Banerjee, K., Cheremisinoff, P. N., Cheng, S. L. Adsorption kinetics of o-xylene by fly ash. Water Res., 1997, 31(2), 249–261.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(96)00003-6

15. Al-Qodah, Z., Shawaqfeh, A. T., Lafi, W. K. Adsorption of pesticides from aqueous solutions using oil shale ash. Desalination, 2007, 208, 294–305.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2006.06.019

Back to Issue