eesti teaduste
akadeemia kirjastus
SINCE 1984
Oil Shale cover
Oil Shale
ISSN 1736-7492 (Electronic)
ISSN 0208-189X (Print)
Impact Factor (2020): 0.934


Full article in PDF format | doi: 10.3176/oil.2010.4.05


The paper deals with utilization of oil shale mining waste rock in Estonia. Crushed waste rock is utilized as an aggregate in civil engineering in frost-free environmental conditions and in road building in unbound mixtures where required resistance to fragmentation LA ≤ 35%. This study determines areas of utilization of waste rock and shows that waste rock aggregate produced using selective mining or selective crushing technology is usable in civil engineering in partially saturated conditions and in unbound mixtures where aggregates require resistance to fragmentation LA ≤ 30%. Waste rock is usable for backfilling the already mined areas.

  1. Lohk, M., Väli, E., Tohver, T., Pastarus, J.-R. Surface miner technology impact on the environment // 5th International Symposium “Topical problems in the field of electrical and power engineering”. Doctoral school of energy and geotechnology / Lahtmets, R. (Ed). Tallinn University of Technology. 2008. P. 44–47.

  2. Väli, E., Valgma, I., Reinsalu, E. Usage of Estonian oil shale // Oil Shale. 2008. Vol. 25, No. 2S. P. 101–114.

  3. Regulation of the Estonian Government, 2005. The rates of the mineral resources extraction charge for the extraction of mineral resources belonging to the state for 2006–2009. RTI 2005, 71, 553 [in Estonian].

  4. Environmental Charges Act. RTI 2005, 67, 512 [in Estonian].

  5. Collins, R. J., Miller, R. H. Utilization of mining and mineral processing wastes in the United States // Environ. Geochem. Hlth. 1979. Vol. 1, No. 1. P. 8–19.

  6. Kassim, T. A., Simoneit, B. R., Williamson, K. J. Recycling Solid Wastes as Road Construction Materials: An Environmentally Sustainable Approach. – Handb. Environ. Chem. 2005. Vol. 5, Part F, Vol. 1. P. 59–181.

  7. Rai, M. Mining & Mineral Wastes for the Development of Building Materials.

  8. Adamson, A. Study on crushing processes of oil shale mining waste rock. Determination of utilization area of the produced aggregate for construction works and data processing for terms of reference of crushing and screening plant. Research report. Contract no 48/89, 1990 [in Russian].

  9. Yurkevich, G. Researching of industrial wastes, composition and industrial testing of building mixtures recipes for the underground mining. Research report. Study no 508L, 1995 [in Russian].

10. Estonian Asphalt Pavement Association. Asphalt Norms AL-ST 1-02. 2002 [in Estonian].

11. EVS-EN 12620:2002+AC:2004 Aggregates for concrete. 2004.

12. Eesti Energia Kaevandused Ltd. Mine layout of Estonian oil shale deposit (unpubl. manuscript), 2009 [in Estonian].

13. Eesti Energia Kaevandused Ltd. Three stage crushing plant in open cast Aidu (unpubl. manuscript), 2006 [in Russian].

14. Adamson, A. Study on utilization possibilities of the aggregate produced from oil shale mining waste products. Research report no 955, 1989 [in Estonian].

15. EVS-EN 1097-2:1998+A1:2006. Tests for mechanical and physical pro­perties of aggregates – Part 2: Methods for the determination of the resistance to fragmentation. 2006.

16. EVS-EN 1097-6:2000+AC:2002+A1:2005. Tests for mechanical and physical properties of aggregates – Part 6: Determination of particle density and water absorption. 2005.

17. EVS-EN 1367-1:2007. Tests for thermal and weathering properties of aggregates – Part 1: Determination of resistance to freezing and thawing. 2007.

18. Raado, L.-M. Waste rock from oil shale mining and separation for backfilling mined areas. Tallinn University of Technology Department of Building Pro­duction Research and Testing Laboratory of Building Materials. Research report. Contract no 8008 (unpubl. manuscript), 2008 [in Estonian].
Back to Issue