eesti teaduste
akadeemia kirjastus
SINCE 1984
Oil Shale cover
Oil Shale
ISSN 1736-7492 (Electronic)
ISSN 0208-189X (Print)
Impact Factor (2021): 1.442
Characterization and pyrolysis of Mongolian Uvdug Khooloin Gashuun oil shale; pp. 97–113
PDF | 10.3176/oil.2022.2.01

Dalantai Monkhoobor, Tsegmid Altantuya, Byambajav Enkhsaruul, Gantumur Enkhjargal, Janchig Narangerel, Galindev Oyunbileg

The oil shale of the Uvdug Khooloin Gashuun deposit, located in Mongolia, has a relatively high content of volatiles (28.40%), but its caloric value is low (1780.0 kJ/kg). Furthermore, it was found to have a relatively high content of organic carbons and a low content of heteroatomic compounds containing elements N, S, O, halogens (X), etc. The ash of oil shale, dominated by aluminosilicates (SiO2 + Al2O/CaO + MgO = 10), is acidic and contains more than 40 heavy and toxic elements. The pyrolysis carried out under nitrogen at 500–550 °C produced shale oil (11.21%), pyrogenetic water (11.09%), gases including losses (8.10%), and semi-coke (69.50%). By gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analyses, 279 (mainly C7–C17 n-alkanes and n-alkenes, 36.69%) and 323 (mainly C12–C19 n-alkanes and n-alkenes, 43.08%) individual organic compounds were identified in both light and middle shale oil distillates, respectively. Also, the neutral sub-fraction (93.1%) of the middle distillate is composed of a large amount of C10–C24 aliphatic hydrocarbons (70.1%) and a negligible amount of acidic and basic organic compounds (6.9%). The study results suggest that the Uvdug Khooloin Gashuun oil shale could be used as a raw material for liquid fuels.


1. Lishtvan, I. I., Dudarchik, V. M., Kraiko, V. M., Bulgakova, N. A., Anufrieva, E. V., Smolyachkova, E. A. Pyrolysis of mixtures based on the oil shale and brown coal of Belarus and the characterization of the resulting fuel products. Solid Fuel Chem., 2014, 48(2), 75–80.

2. Robinson, W. E. Isolation procedures for kerogens and associated soluble organic materials. In: Organic Geochemistry. Methods and Results (Eglinton, G., Murphy, M. T. J., eds.). Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg. 1969, 181–195.

3. Savost’yanov, A. P., Strizhakova, Yu. A., Lapidus, A. L., Taranushich, V. A., Bakun, V. G., Budtsov, V. S., Ilin, V. B., Narochnyi, G. B., Zemlyakov, N. D., Yakovenko, R. E., Ponomarev, V. V. Catalysts in the conversion of coal and shale into synthetic hydrocarbons. Solid Fuel Chem., 2011, 45(2), 97–99.

4. Yang, D., Wang, L., Zhao, Y., Kang, Z. Investigating pilot test of oil shale pyrolysis and oil and gas upgrading by water vapor injection. J. Petrol. Sci. Eng., 2021, 196, 108101.

5. Han, X. X., Jiang, X. M., Cui, Z. G. Thermal analysis studies on combustion mechanism of oil shale. J. Therm. Anal. Calorim., 2006, 84(3), 631–636.

6. Kök, M. V., Guner, G., Bagci, S. Combustion kinetics of oil shales by reaction cell experiments. Oil Shale, 2008, 25(1), 5–16.

7. Özgür, E., Miller, Sh. F., Miller, B. G., Kök, M. V. Thermal analysis of co-firing of oil shale and biomass fuels. Oil Shale, 2012, 29(2), 190–201.

8. Kök, M. V. Heating rate effect on the DSC kinetics of oil shales. J. Therm. Anal. Calorim., 2007, 90(3), 817–821.

9. Kök, M. V., Iscan, A. G. Oil shale kinetics by differential methods. J. Therm. Anal. Calorim., 2007, 88(3), 657–661.

10. Nazarenko, M. Yu., Bazhin, V. Yu., Saltykova, S. N., Konovalov, G. V. Physico-chemical properties of fuel shales. Coke Chem., 2014, 57(3), 129–133.

11. Bat-Erdene, D. Mongolian oil shale basins and deposits. In: Byamba, J. (ed.), Fossil fuel. Mongolian Geology and Mineral Resources (Vol. 5, pp. 178–271), Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, 2009 (in Mongolian).

12. Ochirbat, P. Technological Study of Processing of Oil Shale Hydrocarbons. Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, 2014, 210–215 (in Mongolian).

13. Savel’ev, V. V., Pevneva, G. S., Namkhainorov, Zh., Golovko, A. K. Oil shales of Mongolia. Solid Fuel Chem. 2011, 45(6), 397–403.

14. Avid, B., Purevsuren, B. Chemical composition of organic matter of the Mongolian Khoot oil shale. Oil Shale, 2001, 18(1), 15–23.

15. Avid, B., Purevsuren, B., Born, M., Dugarjav, J., Davaajav, Y., Tuvshinjargal, A. Pyrolysis and TG analysis of Shivee Ovoo Coal from Mongolia. J. Therm. Anal. Calorim., 2002, 68(3), 877–885.

16. Avid, V., Purevsuren, V., Dugarjav, J. Thermal decomposition of oil shale. In: Reports of the Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology (ICCT), Mongolian Academy of Sciences (MAS), Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, 1998, 33.

17. Brown Coals, Bituminous Coals, Anthracite and Oil Shales: Shortened Methods of Moisture Determination. GOST 11014-2001. Federal Agency for Technical Regulation and Metrology (Rosstandart) (in Russian).

18. Kuznetsov, P. N., Kuznetsova, L. I., Buryukin, F. A., Marakushina, E. N., Frizorger, V. K. Methods for the preparation of coal-tar pitch. Solid Fuel Chem. 2015, 49(4), 213–225.

19. Bogorodskaya, L. I., Kontorovich, A. E., Larichev, A. I. Kerogen: Methods of Study and Geochemical Interpretation. Geo, Novosibirsk, 2005 (in Russian).

20. Purevsuren, B., Avid, B., Narangerel, J., Gerelmaa, T., Davaajav, Y. Investigation on the pyrolysis products from animal bone. J. Mater. Sci., 2004, 39(2), 737–740.

21. Avgushevich, I. V., Bronovets, T. M., Eremen, I. V., Medvedev, A. V., Churbakov, V. F. Analytical Chemistry and Technical Analysis of Coal. Moskva, Izd. Nedra, 1987, 257–263 (in Russian).

Back to Issue