eesti teaduste
akadeemia kirjastus
SINCE 1965
Linguistica Uralica cover
Linguistica Uralica
ISSN 1736-7506 (Electronic)
ISSN 0868-4731 (Print)

Concerning the Relationship of the Comitative construction to the Coordinating Construction in Estonia; pp. 97-107

Full article in PDF format | doi:10.3176/lu.2008.2.02

Mati Erelt

In many languages the comitative construction expressing the relation of accompaniment has developed or is developing into the coordinating construction. In Estonian the accompaniment comitative occurs as a verbal adjunct, e.g. Jüri läks (koos) Marega kinno ’Jüri went to the cinema with Mare’. However, the beginnings of coordination are evident in those constructions where a comitative-marked NP precedes the verb, immediately following the primary NP (i.e. the constituent that occupies a higher position in the hierarchy of grammatical relations than the comitative-marked NP), e.g. Peaminister NN (koos) abikaasaga jõuab tagasi visiidilt Soome ’Prime Minister NN with his spouse returns from a visit to Finland’. At first the contact position highlights relatedness and is highly natural where phrases denote internally closely related concepts – semantically or culturally. At this initial stage of coordination the number of the verb still reflects the number of the nominative NP, but occasional examples of a plural verb with the contact comitative indicate that coordination could develop further. More syntactic and semantic properties of the coordinating construction are manifested in the inclusory comitative construction, that is, in the construction where the referent of a comitative-marked NP is among the referents of the primary constituent, e.g. Meie sinuga (= mina ja sina) käisime maal ’We with you (= me and you) visited the countryside’. At the same time the comitative constituent of the inclusory construction has in addition to the properties of the conjunct also some properties of the apposition (specifying the composition of the group) and the adjunct (can be placed after the verb). For this reason, this constituent cannot be classified in the traditional manner.

Dalrymple, M., Nikolajeva, I. 2006, Syntax of Natural and Accidental Coordination. Evidence from Agreement. - Language 86, 824-849.

Erelt, M. 2002, Hierarhiatest tüpoloogias. - Teoreetiline keeleteadus Eestis, Tartu (Tartu Ülikooli üldkeeleteaduse õppetooli toimetised 4), 34-40.

Erelt, M. 2004, Lauseliigendusprobleeme eesti grammatikas. - Lauseliikmeist eesti keeles, Tartu (Tartu Ülikooli eesti keele õppetooli preprindid 1), 7-15.

Habicht, K. 2000, Grammaticalization of Adpositions in Old Literary Estonian. - Estonian: Typological Studies IV, Tartu (Tartu Ülikooli eesti keele õppetooli toimetised 14), 19-58.

Hakulinen, A., Vilkuna, M., Korhonen, R., Koivisto, V., Heinonen, T. R., Alho, I. 2004, Iso suomen kielioppi, Helsinki (SKST 950).

Haspelmath, M. 2007, Coordination. - Language Typology and Linguistic Description. Second edition. Volume II. Complex Constructions, Cambridge, 1-51.

Ross, J., R. 1967, Constraints on Variables in Syntax. Ph.D. Dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Stassen, L. 2000, AND-languages and WITH-languages. - Linguistic Typology 1, 1-54.

Stassen, L. 2001, Noun Phrase Coordination. - Language Typology and Language Universals. An International Handbook, Berlin, 1105-1111.

Stolz, T., Stroh, C., Urdze A. 2006, On Comitatives and Related Categories. A Typological Study with Special Focus on the Languages of Europe, Berlin (Empirical Approaches to Language Typology 33).

Vassilieva, M. 2001, On the Typology of Russian Comitative Constructions. - Proceedings of the Annual Workshop on Formal Approaches to Slavic Linguistics. The Bloomington Meeting, 2000, Ann Arbor (Michigan Slavic Publications), 327-344.

Vassilieva, M., Larson R. K. 2005, The Semantics of the Plural Pronoun Construction. - Natural Language Semantics (2005) 13, 101-124.

Wälchli, B. 2005, Co-compounds and Natural Coordination, Oxford.

Archipov, A. 2005, Tipologija komitativnych konstruktsij. Kand. diss., Moskva.

Back to Issue