ESTONIAN ACADEMY
PUBLISHERS
eesti teaduste
akadeemia kirjastus
cover
Estonian Journal of Engineering

Innovation, product development and patents at universities; pp. 4–17

Full article in PDF format | doi: 10.3176/eng.2013.1.02

Authors
Raul Kartus, Ants Kukrus

Abstract

In the present article actual matters of technological innovations are dealt with in the context of research universities, mainly taking into account the circumstances in Estonia. For the description of a process of technological innovation one of the cognitive models has been used. Patents are an integral part of technological innovation, notably in the case of development of new products. The patent statistics given in the article shows that despite wishes, the business sector and universities are not enough oriented internationally. Besides that, there is a lack of enterprises and R&D performing firms, who might play a considerable role in the economy of Estonia, in these key sectors. Amendments to the Utility Models Act would enable to increase the legal certainty of the protection of utility models and to make it more attractive for the universities and SME-s.


References

  1. Litan, R. E., Mitchell, L. and Reedy, E. J. Commercializing university innovations: a better way. NBER Working Paper, April 2007, p. 3. http://sites.kauffman.org/pdf/nber_0407.pdf

  2. Estonian Research and Development and Innovation Strategy 2007–2013 “Knowledge-based Estonia” (RD&I strategy). www.hm.ee/index.php?popup=download&id=10648

  3. Green Paper on Innovation. COM (95) 688. http://europa.eu/documents/comm/green_papers/ pdf/com95_688_en.pdf

  4. OECD. Glossary of Statistical Terms. http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/detail.asp?ID=1583

  5. Kalanje C. M. Role of intellectual property in innovation and new product develop­ment. WIPO http://www.wipo.int/export/sites/www/sme/en/documents/pdf/ip_innovation_ development.pdf

  6. Frascati Manual. The measurement of scientific and technological activities. OECD, 2002. http://browse.oecdbookshop.org/oecd/pdfs/free/9202081e.pdf

  7. Proposed guidelines for collecting and interpreting technological innovation data – Oslo manual. OECD/EC/Eurostat, 1996. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/35/61/2367580.pdf

  8. The measurement of scientific and technological activities using patent data as science and technology indicators. Patent Manual. OECD, 1994. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/ 33/62/2095942.pdf

  9. Economic study on patent backlogs and a system of mutual recognition. Final Report. London Economics. 2010. http://www.ipo.gov.uk/p-backlog-report.pdf

10. Kukrus, A. and Kartus, R. Tööstusomand ja globaalmajandus. Külim, Tallinn, 2008.

11. Shodjai, F. Science and technology indicators and a catalog of major S&T indicators of Canada. http://www.shodjai.org/foad/st_ind.fm.html#FN4

12. World intellectual property indicators – 2011 edition. http://www.wipo.int/export/sites/www/ ipstats/en/wipi/pdf/941_2011_section_a.pdf

13. Kartus, R. and Kukrus, A. Innovation, product development and patents at universities. In Proc. 8th International Conference DAAAM Baltic Industrial Engineering. Tallinn, Estonia, 2012. Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli Kirjastus, 2012, 477–482.

14. World Intellectual Property Indicators – 2011 edition. WIPO. http://www.wipo.int/export/sites/ www/ipstats/en/wipi/pdf/941_2011_section_a.pdf

15. The International Patent System 2012. PCT Yearly Review. WIPO Economics & Statistics Series. WIPO, Geneva, 2012.

16. International patent filings recover in 2010. WIPO. http://www.wipo.int/pressroom/en/articles/ 2011/article_0004.html

17. Innovation in the Baltic Sea Region. Final Report to the European Commission, Directorate-General Regional Policy. Technopolis Group, 2011- http://www.interact-eu.net/downloads/ 4445/Study___Innovation_in_EUSBSR___07.2011.pdf

18. Aastaraamat 2011. Patendiamet, Tallinn, 2012.

19. Fees and costs. How much does a European patent cost? EPO. http://www.epo.org/service-support/faq/own-file.html#faq-199

20. Kukrus, A. and Kartus, R. Economic and legal aspects of the patent litigation in the European Union: developments and perspectives. In Discussions on Estonian Economic Policy. Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag, Mattimar, 2011.

21. TUT research and development strategy 2005–2015. http://www.ttu.ee/research-and-development-office/tut/

22. Commission Recommendation on the management of intellectual property in knowledge transfer activities and Code of Practice for universities and other public research organisations. C(2008)1329, Brussels, 10.4.2008. http://ec.europa.eu/invest-in-research/ pdf/ip_recommendation_en.pdf

23. Riigi Teataja, 28.12.2011, 10.


Back to Issue