ESTONIAN ACADEMY
PUBLISHERS
eesti teaduste
akadeemia kirjastus
cover
Estonian Journal of Engineering

Development of agglomerated acidic flux for submerged arc welding; pp. 135–141

Full article in PDF format | doi: 10.3176/eng.2010.2.02

Authors
Jaimal Singh Khamba, Narendra Mohan, Vinod Kumar

Abstract
A granular flux, which is used in submerged arc welding, plays an important role in deciding the weld metal quality and it may cost up to half of the total welding consumable cost. A significant percentage of the flux gets converted into very fine particles, termed as flux dust, due to transportation and handling. Welding defects like porosity occur if welding is performed without removing these very fine particles from the flux, and if these fine particles are removed by sieving, the cost of welding will be increased significantly. Also if this flux dust is dumped, it creates pollution. The present study has been conducted to investigate the viability of developing an acidic agglomerated flux by utilizing wasted flux dust of the parent commercial acidic flux. The chemical composition and mechanical properties of the all-weld metal, prepared by using the developed acidic flux, were found to be in the same range as that of the weld metal, prepared from parent commercial acidic flux. The radiographic examination of the welded joint, made by developing the flux, was also found to be sound. Therefore the welding cost and pollution can be reduced, without any compromise in weld quality, by utilizing the developed flux, prepared from waste flux dust of the parent flux. Thus the work follows the concept of ‘waste to wealth’.
References

  1. Parmar, R. S. Welding Processes and Technology. Khanna Publishers, New Delhi, 1992.

  2. Houldcroft, P. T. Submerged Arc Welding, 2nd ed. Abington Publishing, Cambridge, England, 1989.

  3. Brien, R. L. Welding Handbook, vol. 2, 2nd ed. American Welding Society, 1978.

  4. Vishvanath, P. S. Submerged arc welding fluxes. Indian Welding J., 1982, 15, 1–12.

  5. Chandel, R. S. Mathematical modeling of melting rates for submerged arc welding. Welding J., 1987, 65, 32s–39s.

  6. Schwemmer, D. D. and Williamson, D. L. The relationship of weld penetration to the weld flux. Welding J., 1979, 58, 155s–161s.

  7. Indacochea, J. E. and Olsen, D. L. Relationship of weld metal microstructure and penetration to weld metal oxygen control. Mater. Energy Syst., 1983, 5, 139–145.
doi:10.1007/BF02833367

  8. Davis, M. L. E. and Baily, N. Properties of submerged arc fluxes – a fundamental study. Metal Constr., 1982, 64, 207–209.

  9. Murugan, N. and Gunaraj, V. Prediction and control of weld bead geometry and shape relation­ships in submerged arc welding of pipes. J. Mater. Process. Technol., 2005, 168, 478–487.
doi:10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2005.03.001

10. Datta, S., Bandhopadhayaay, A. and Pal, P. K. Modeling and optimization of features of bead geometry including percentage dilution in submerged arc welding using mixture of fresh and fused flux. Int. J. Adv. Manufact. Technol., 2008, 36, 1080–1090.
doi:10.1007/s00170-006-0917-4

11. Mercado, A. M., Hirata, V. M. and Lopez, M. Influence of the chemical composition of flux on the microstructure and tensile properties of submerged-arc welds. J. Mater. Process. Technol., 2005, 169, 346–351.
doi:10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2005.03.035

12. Lau, T., Weatherly, G. C. and Maclean. A. Gas/metal/slag reactions in submerged arc welding using Cao-Al2 O3 based fluxes. Welding J., 1980, 69, 31s–39s.
Back to Issue