Simulation of patterns of wakes from high-speed ferries in Tallinn Bay; pp. 232–254Full article in PDF format | doi: 10.3176/eng.2008.3.04
We analyse spatial patterns and far field properties of the long-wave part of wakes of fast ferries in Tallinn Bay with the use of the Boussinesq-type shallow-water model COULWAVE, forced by realistic ship motions. The calculated heights of ship waves exhibit substantial spatial variability. The largest waves were created when the ship, sailing to Tallinn, entered into supercritical regime when moving over the coastal slope. The maximum wave height eventually reached 3 m, whereas along other sections of the track the wave height was about 1 m. The highest waves hit the area of Pirita Beach that apparently has much larger ship wave loads than the adjacent sections of the Viimsi Peninsula.
3. Lindholm, T., Svartström, M., Spoof, L. and Meriluoto, J. Effects of ship traffic on archipelago waters off the Långnäs harbour in Åland, SW Finland. Hydrobiologia, 2001, 444, 217–225.
4. Soomere, T. Fast ferry traffic as a qualitatively new forcing factor of environmental processes in non-tidal sea areas: a case study in Tallinn Bay, Baltic Sea. Environ. Fluid Mech., 2005, 5, 293–323.
6. Soomere, T. Wind wave statistics in Tallinn Bay. Boreal Environ. Res., 2005, 10, 103–118.
7. Soomere, T., Elken, J., Kask, J., Keevallik, S., Kõuts, T., Metsaveer, J. and Peterson, P. Fast ferries as a new key forcing factor in Tallinn Bay. Proc. Estonian Acad. Sci. Eng., 2003, 9, 220–242.
11. Parnell, K. E. and Kofoed-Hansen, H. Wakes from large high-speed ferries in confined coastal waters: Management approaches with examples from New Zealand and Denmark. Coast. Manage., 2001, 29, 217–237.
14. Kofoed-Hansen, H. Technical Investigation of Wake Wash from Fast Ferries. Report No. 96-5012, Danish Hydraulic Institute, Copenhagen, 1996.
15. Kofoed-Hansen, H. and Mikkelsen, A. C. Wake wave from fast ferries in Denmark. In Proc. 4th International Conference of Fast Sea Transportation FAST’97. Sydney, 1997. Baird Publications, Hong Kong, Sydney, 1997, vol. 1, 471–478.
18. Chen, X. N. and Sharma, S. D. A slender ship moving at a near-critical speed in a shallow channel. J. Fluid Mech., 1995, 291, 263–285.
19. Jiang, T. Investigation of waves generated by ships in shallow water. In Proc. 22nd Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics. Washington D.C., 1998. National Academy Press, Washington D.C., 1999, 601–612.
20. Jiang, T., Henn, R. and Sharma, S. D. Wash waves generated by ships moving on fairways of varying topography. In Proc. 24th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics. Fukuoka, Japan, 2002. National Academy Press, Washington D.C., 2003, 441–457 (web only: www.nap-edu).
21. Kofoed-Hansen, H., Jensen, T., Sørensen, O. R. and Fuchs, J. Wake wash risk assessment of high-speed ferry routes – a case study and suggestions for model improvements. In Proc. International Conference on Hydrodynamics of High Speed Craft, Wake Wash and Motion Control. London, 2000. The Royal Institute of Naval Architects, 2000.
22. Katsis, C. and Akylas, T. R. On the excitation of long nonlinear water waves by a moving pressure distribution. Part 2. Three-dimensional effects. J. Fluid Mech., 1987, 177, 49–65.
24. Choi, H. S., Bai, K. J., Kim, J. W., Kim, Y. H. and Cho, H. Nonlinear free surface waves due to a ship moving near the critical speed of shallow water. In Proc. 18th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics. Ann Arbor, 1990. National Academy Press, Washington D.C., 1990, 173–190.
27. Soomere, T. and Kask, J. A specific impact of waves of fast ferries on sediment transport processes of Tallinn Bay. Proc. Estonian Acad. Sci. Biol. Ecol., 2003, 52, 319–331.
28. Erm, A. and Soomere, T. Influence of fast ship waves on optical properties of sea water in Tallinn Bay, Baltic Sea. Proc. Estonian Acad. Sci. Biol. Ecol., 2004, 53, 161–178.34. Soomere, T., Kask, A. and Kask, J. Pirita rannavööndi keskkonnauuringud ja rannakaitse rajatiste projekteerimise lähteülesanne. Research report. TTÜ Küberneetika Instituut, Tallinn, 2005.
Back to Issue