ESTONIAN ACADEMY
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Estonian Journal of Engineering

On the relationship between sea ice deformation and ship damages in the Gulf of Finland in winter 2003; 201-214

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Authors
Ove Pärn, Jari Haapala, Tarmo Kõuts, Jüri Elken, Kaj Riska

Abstract
Sea ice ridges and other types of deformed ice are the main obstacles for the winter navigation. During the severe winter 2002/2003, about 60% of the ship hull damages, registered in the Baltic Sea, occurred in the Gulf of Finland. We have analysed ice deformation features, derived from the HELMI sea ice model in relation to two ship damages that occurred in the Gulf of Finland this winter. The damages happened close to the high growth rate area of deformed ice at the interface of different ice conditions with notable ice thickness gradients. It is concluded that the rate of ridged ice production is an indicator of the compression of the ice pack and a potential indicator of ice-induced danger to shipping.
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