Analysis of some limiting ecological factors on the example of the distribution of the genus Tilia L. cultivated in Latvia; pp. 185–202Full article in PDF format
| doi: 10.3176/eco.2014.3.05
The study was performed on the basis of an inventory of the genus Tilia in Latvia. A total of 134 dendrological objects were inventoried in order to clarify factors limiting the distribution of linden in the territory of Latvia. During the 2007–2013 inventory 47 taxa of Tilia were found. The taxa and their winter hardiness were evaluated according to the Sokolov scale. In the interpretation of the distribution of taxa 16 geographical and climatic factors were used. Spearman’s rank correlation indicated a connection with 11 factors, among them distance to the sea, height above sea level, average January temperature, sum of negative temperatures, and amount of annual precipitation. The results of statistical analysis demonstrated an irregular connection between the geographical distribution of the genus Tilia and ecological factors. A negative correlation with height above sea level was observed for T. americana, T. ´ moltkei, and T. platyphyllos subsp. platyphyllos. Analysis of winter hardiness of trees revealed that trees get frozen in hard winters although they grow in hardiness zones that fit linden.
Bengtsson, R. 2005. Variation in Common Lime (Tilia ´ europaea L.) in Swedish Gardens of the 17th and 18th Centuries. PhD thesis. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp.
Čakstere, G. 2011. Impact of Different Environmental Factors to Vitality of Tilia ´ vulgaris in Public Greeneries of Riga City. PhD thesis. Latvian University Academic Publishers, Rīga (in Latvian).
Cinovskis, R., Janele, I., Skujeniece, I., and Zvirgzds, A. 1974. Trees and Shrubs of Latvian Rural Parks. Zinātne, Rīga (in Latvian).
Cinovskis, R., Knape, Dz., Kaškura, A., and Šmaukstelis, E. 1987. Damages of trees and shrubs in Latvia under the influence of the severe winter of 1978/79. In Baltic Botanical Gardens Winter-hardy Trees and Shrubs 1978/79, pp. 51–76. Zinātne, Rīga (in Russian).
Cinovskis, R., Bice, M., Knape, Dz., and Šmite, D. 1989. Trees and Shrubs of Dendrological Objects of Krāslava District. LatZTIZPI, Rīga (in Latvian).
Daly, C., Widrlechner, M. P., Halbleib, M. D., Smith, J. I., and Gibson, W. P. 2012. Development of a new USDA plant hardiness zone map for the United States. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 51(2), 242–264.
Draveniece, A. 2007. Oceanic and continental air masses over Latvia. Latvian Vegetation, 14, 135.
Evarte-Bundere, G. and Evarts-Bunders, P. 2011. Evaluation of winter hardiness in different cultivated Tilia taxa – experience of some most valuable dendrological plantations in Central Latvia (Vidzeme) after extremely hard winter in year 2009/2010. Acta Biologica Universitatis Daugavpiliensis, 11(2), 119–125.
Fang, J. and Lechowicz, M. J. 2006. Climatic limits for the present distribution of beech (Fagus L.) species in the world. Journal of Biogeography, 33, 1804–1819.
Fomina, L. M. 1972. Climatic Atlas of the Latvian SSR. Zvaigzne, Rīga (in Russian).
Fritts, H. C. 2001. Tree-rings and Climate. The Blackburn Press, Caldwell.
Golovkin, B. N. 1981. History of Plant Introduction in Botanical Gardens. Izd-vo Moskovskogo Universiteta, Moscow (in Russian).
Gostev, V. and Yuskevich, N. 1991. Garden and Park Planning. Strojizdat, Moscow (in Russian).
Igaunis, G. and Bandere, D. 1983. Winter hardiness of introducents in the winter of 1978/79 in MPS “Kalsnava” arboretum. Jaunākais mežsaimniecībā, 25, 11–19 (in Latvian).
Januškevičius, L., Baronienė, V., and Liagienė, D. 2006. Introduction and Acclimatization of Woody Plants and Their Results and Prospects in Lithuania. Lututė, Kaunas (in Lithuanian).
Jurševska, G. and Evarts-Bunders, P. 2010. Taxons of the genus Tilia L. in Latvia. Latvian Vegetation, 21, 5–28 (in Latvian).
Kļaviņš, M. and Andrušaitis, A. 2008. Climate Variability and Global Warming. Latvian University Academic Publishers, Rīga (in Latvian).
Kļaviņš, M., Nikodemus, O., Segliņš, V., Melecis, V., Vircavs, M., and Aboliņa, K. 2008. Environmental Science. The Academic Press of the University of Latvia, Rīga.
Krüssmann, G. 1976. Handbuch der Laubgeholze. Vol. 1. Berlin, Hamburg.
Kupffer, K. 1925. Grundzüge der Pflanzengeographie des Ostbaltischen Gebietes. Abhandlungen des Herder-Instituts zu Riga, 1(6).
Laas, E. 1987. Investigations of winter hardiness of the introduced woody plants in the south-eastern part of the Estonian SSR after the severe winter of 1978/79. In Baltic Botanical Gardens Winter-hardy Trees and Shrubs 1978/79, pp. 43–50 (in Russian).
Laiviņš, M. 2010. Plant communities of alien broad-leaved species Fagus sylvatica, Quercus rubra and Juglans ailanthifolia in Latvia. Latvian Vegetation, 21, 41–90.
Laiviņš, M. and Melecis, V. 2003. Biogeographical interpretation of climate data in Latvia: multidimensional analysis. Acta Universitatis Latviensis, 654, 7–22.
Laiviņš, M., Bice, M., Krampis, I., Knape, Dz., Šmite, D., and Šulcs, V. 2009. Atlas of Latvian Woody Plants. SIA Apgāds Mantojums, Rīga.
Lange, V. 1957. Comparative data on frost impact upon woody plant species in the territory of the Latvian SSR in the severe winters of 1939/40 and 1955/56. LLA Raksti, 6, 467–476 (in Latvian).
Lange, V., Mauriņš, A., and Zvirgzds, A. 1978. Dendrology. Zvaigzne, Rīga (in Latvian).
[LEGMC]. Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre. 2012. http://www.meteo.lv (accessed 14.11.2012).
Liesebach, H. and Sinkó, Z. 2008. A contribution to the systematics of the genus Tilia with respect to some hybrids by RAPD analysis. Dendrobiology, 59, 13–22.
Madĕra, P., Tichá, S., and Řepka, R. 2013. Distribution and ecological requirements of Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz in the Czech Republic. Dendrobiology, 69, 59–68.
Mauriņš, A. 1962. Observations on winter resistance of arboreal plants in the territory of Latvia during the period from 1800 to 1960. In Plant Winter Resistance, Cold Resistance and Possibilities of Raising Them. Latvian SSR Academy of Sciences, Rīga (in Latvian).
Mauriņš, А. 1970. Experience of Arboreal Plant Introduction in Latvia. Zvaigzne, Rīga (in Russian).
Mauriņš, A. and Zvirgzds, A. 2006. Dendrology. Latvian University Academic Publishers, Rīga (in Latvian).
Mednis, I. 1987. Results of the wintering of woody plants in the severe winter of 1978/79 and the following wet summer, and in the cold winter of 1979/80 in the arboretum “Lāčupe”. Damages of trees and shrubs in Latvia under the influence of the severe winter of 1978/79. In Baltic Botanical Gardens Winter-hardy Trees and Shrubs 1978/79, pp. 138–150. Zinātne, Rīga (in Russian).
Muir, N. 1984. A survey of the genus Tilia. Plantsman, 5, 206–242.
[NBD]. Nationālas Botāniskais Dārzs. 2014. http://www.nbd.gov.lv/par_mums/vesture (accessed 20.02.2014).
Ozols, A., Pētersons, E., and Riekstiņš, I. 1959. Winter hardiness of ornamental trees and shrubs in the severe winter of 1955/56. Decorative Gardening, 1, 47–83 (in Latvian).
Page, S. and Olds, M. (eds). 1997. Botanica. The Illustrated A–Z of Over 10,000 Garden Plants and How to Cultivate Them. Random House Australia.
Pellett, H. 1994. Selecting trees for cold climates. Journal of Arboriculture, 20(1), 28–32.
Pigott, D. 2012. Lime-trees and Basswoods. A Biological Monograph of the Genus Tilia. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Pigott, C. D. and Huntley, J. P. 1978. Factors controlling the distribution of Tilia cordata at the northern limits of its geographical range. New Phytologist, 81, 429–441.
Prentice, I. C., Cramer, W., Harrison, S. P., Leemans, R., Monserud, R. A., and Solomon, A. M. 1992. A global biome model based on plant physiology and dominance, soil properties and climate. Journal of Biogeography, 19, 117–134.
Radoglou, K., Dobrowolska, D., Spyroglou, G., and Nicolescu, V. N. 2009. A review on the ecology and silviculture of limes (Tilia cordata Mill., Tilia platyphyllos Scop. and Tilia tomentosa Moench.) in Europe. Die Bodenkultur, 60(3), 9–19.
Rasiņš, A. 1962. Plant geography, interconnection of climate and frost damages of arboreal plants on the example of Latvian conditions. In Plant Winter Resistance, Cold Resistance and Possibilities of Raising Them. Latvian SSR Academy of Sciences, Rīga (in Latvian).
Rehder, A. 1967. Manual of Cultivated Trees and Shrubs. The Macmillan Company, New York.
Rousi, M., Possen, B. J. H. M., Hagqvist, R., and Thomas, B. R. 2012. From the Arctic Circle to the Canadian prairies – a case study of silver birch acclimation capacity. Silva Fennica, 46(3), 355–364.
Rupais, A. 1989. Tilia ´ vulgaris in City. Zinatne, Rīga (in Latvian).
Rutkovska, S., Pučka., I., Evarts-Bunders, P., and Paidere, J. 2013. The role of railway lines in the distribution of alien plant species in the territory of Daugavpils City (Latvia). Estonian Journal of Ecology, 62, 212–225.
Sæbø, A., Benedikz, T., and Randrup, T. 2003. Selection of trees for urban forestry in the Nordic countries. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 2, 101–114.
Sander, H., Elliku, J., Läänelaid, A., Reisner, V., Reisner, Ü., Rohtla, M., and Šestakov, M. 2003. Urban trees of Tallinn, Estonia. Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences. Biology. Ecology, 52, 437–452.
Schweingruber, F. H. 1996. Tree Rings and Environment: Dendroecology. Paul Haupt Verlag, Berlin.
Sokolov, S. Ya. 1957. Modern aspects of aclimatization theory and plant indroduction. Trudy BIN AN SSSR (in Russian).
Speer, J. H. 2010. Fundamentals of Tree-ring Research. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson.
Sukopp, H. and Wurzel, A. 2000. Changing climate and the effects on vegetation in central European cities. Arboricultural Journal, 24, 257–281.
Tänavots, J. 1987. Influence of the winter of 1978/79 upon trees and shrubs in the Botanical Garden of the Tartu State University. In Baltic Botanical Gardens Winter-hardy Trees and Shrubs 1978/79, pp. 13–43. Zinātne, Rīga (in Russian).
Turlajs, J. (ed.). 2007. Latvian Geography Atlas. Jāņa sēta, Rīga (in Latvian).
Wang, X. P., Tang, Z. Y., and Fang, J. Y. 2006. Climatic control on forests and tree species distribution in the forest region of Northeast China. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology, 48, 778–789.
Woodward, F. I. 1987. Climate and Plant Distribution. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Zirnītis, A. 1968. Meteorology. Zvaigzne, Rīga (in Latvian).
Zvirgzds, A. 1962. Observations on winter resistance in the scientific plant nursery of the botanical garden of the Latvian Academy of Sciences. In Plant Winter Resistance, Cold Resistance and Possibilities of Raising Them. Latvian SSR Academy of Sciences, Rīga (in Latvian).
Zvirgzds, A. 1986. Tree in City. Zvaigzne, Rīga (in Latvian).
Back to Issue