We applied a complex of methods (spectrophotometry, HPLC, sediment oxygen demand) for the study of fossil pigments in lake sediment. The methods were tested on well-monitored lakes of different trophic status. It was found that the variations in pigment concentrations in the surface sediments of the studied lakes were mainly determined by their degradation before final burial.
In the oligotrophic lakes of high Secchi transparency the concentration of fossil carotenoids and chlorophyll derivatives was the lowest and it increased when the photooxidation conditions deteriorated (decreasing transparency, higher trophicity). The individual pigments identified by HPLC analysis were in good correspondence with monitoring data.
Bengtsson, L. & Enell, M. 1986. Chemical analysis. In Handbook of Holocene Palaeoecology and Palaeohydrology (Berglund, B. E., ed.), pp. 423–451. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, New York, Brisbane, Toronto, Singapore.
Benoit, P., Gratton, Y. & Mucci, A. 2006. Modelling of dissolved oxygen levels in the bottom waters of the Lower St. Lawrence Estuary: coupling of benthic and pelagic processes. Mar. Chem., 102(1–2), 13–32.
Bloesch, J., Stadelmann, P. & Bührer, H. 1988. Primary production, mineralization and sedimentation in the euphotic zone of the Swiss lake. Limnol. Oceanogr., 22, 511–526.
Dean, W. E. 1999. The carbon cycle and biogeochemical dynamics in lake sediments. J. Paleolimnol., 21, 375–393.
Gruber, N., Wehrli, B. & Wüest, A. 2000. The role of biogeochemical cycling for the formation and preservation of varved sediments in Soppensee (Switzerland). J. Paleolimnol., 24, 277–291.
Hodgson, D. A., Verleyen, E., Squier, A. H., Sabbe, K., Keely, B. J., Saunders, K. M. & Vyverman, W. 2006. Interglacial environments of coastal east Antarctica: comparison of MIS 1 (Holocene) and MIS 5e (last interglacial) lake-sediment records. Quat. Sci. Rev., 25, 179–197.
Hurley, J. P. & Armstrong, D. E. 1990. Fluxes and transformations of aquatic pigments in Lake Mendota, Wisconsin. Limnol. Oceanogr., 35, 384–398.
Lami, A., Niessen, F., Guilizzoni, P., Masaferro, J. & Belis, C. 1994. Palaeolimnological studies of the eutrophication of volcanic Lake Albano (Central Italy). J. Palaeolimnol., 10, 181–197.
Leavitt, P. R. 1993. A review of factors that regulate carotenoid and chlorophyll deposition and fossil pigment abundance. J. Palaeolimnol., 9, 109–127.
Leavitt, P. R. & Carpenter, S. R. 1990. Aphotic pigment degradation in the hypolimnion: implications for sedimentation studies and paleolimnology. Limnol. Oceanogr., 35, 520–534.
Leavitt, P. R. & Hodgson, D. A. 2001. Sedimentary pigments. In Tracking Environmental Change Using Lake Sediments. Vol. 3. Terrestrial, Algal and Siliceous Indicators (Smol, J. P., Birks, H. J. B. & Last, W. M., eds), pp. 295–325. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.
Leavitt, P. R., Findlay, D. L., Hall, R. I. & Smol, J. P. 1999. Algal responses to dissolved organic carbon loss and pH decline during whole-lake acidification: evidence from paleolimnology. Limnol. Oceanogr., 44, 757–773.
Mäemets, A. & Teder, A. 1987. Kurtna vähetoiteliste järvede suurtaimestiku (makrofloora) muutustest viimastel aastakümnetel ja selle nüüdisseisund. In Kurtna järvestiku looduslik seisund ja selle areng (Ilomets, M., ed.), pp. 127–132. Tallinn.
Mantoura, R. F. C. & Llewellyn, C. A. 1983. The rapid determination of algal chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments and their breakdown products in natural waters by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Anal. Chim. Acta, 151, 297–314.
Marchetto, A., Lami, A., Musazzi, S., Massaferro, J., Langone, L. & Guilizzoni, P. 2004. Lake Maggiore (N. Italy) trophic history: fossil diatom, plant pigments, and chironomids, and comparison with long-term limnological data. Quat. Int., 113, 97–110.
Ott, I., Nõges, T., Nõges, P., Järvalt, A., Tuvikene, A., Krause, T. & Kruus, U. 1987. Kurtna vähetoiteliste järvede seisundist. In Kurtna järvestiku looduslik seisund ja selle areng (Ilomets, M., ed.), pp. 172–177. Tallinn.
Punning, J. M. 1994. Influence of human activity on different ecosystems. In The Influence of Natural and Anthropogenic Factors on the Development of Landscapes. The Results of
a Comprehensive Study in NE Estonia. Inst. Ecol., Estonian Acad. Sci., Publ., No. 2 (Punning, J. M., ed.), pp. 190–227. Tallinn.
Punning, J. M. & Leeben, A. 2003. A comparison of sediment and monitoring data: implications for paleomonitoring a small lake. Environ. Monit. Assess., 89, 1–13.
Punning, J.-M., Kangur, M., Koff, T. & Possnert, G. 2003. Holocene lake-level changes and their reflection in the paleolimnological records of two lakes in northern Estonia. J. Palaeolimnol., 29, 167–178.
Punning, J.-M., Boyle, J. F., Terasmaa, J., Vaasma, T. & Mikomägi, A. 2007. Changes in lake sediment structure and composition caused by human-impact: repeated studies of Lake Martiska. Holocene, 17(1), 145–151.
Repeta, D. J. & Gagosian, R. B. 1987. Carotenoid diagenesis in recent marine sediments – I. The Peru continental shelf (15° S, 75° W). Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 51, 1001–1009.
Reuss, N., Conley, D. J. & Bianchi, T. S. 2005. Preservation conditions and the use of sediment pigments as a tool for recent ecological reconstruction in four Northern European estuaries. Mar. Chem., 95, 283–302.
Sanger, J. E. 1988. Fossil pigments in paleoecology and paleolimnology. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclim. Palaeoecol., 62, 343–359.
Stefan, H. G. & Fang, X. 1994. Dissolved oxygen model for regional lake analysis. Ecol. Modell., 71, 37–68.
Swain, E. B. 1985. Measurement and interpretation of sedimentary pigments. Freshwater Biol., 15, 53–75.
Wang, W. 1980. Fractionation of sediment oxygen demand. Water Res., 14, 603–612.
Watts, D. C. & Maxwell, J. R. 1977. Carotenoid diagenesis in a marine sediment. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 41, 493–497.
Wetzel, R. G. 1983. Limnology. Saunders College Publishing, Fort Worth, Philadelphia.
Witek, Z., Ochocki, S., Nakonieczny, J., Podgorska, B. & Drgas, A. 1999. Primary production and decomposition of organic matter in the epipelagic zone of the Gulf of Gdańsk, an estuary of the Vistula. J. Mar. Sci., 56, 3–14.