ESTONIAN ACADEMY
PUBLISHERS
eesti teaduste
akadeemia kirjastus
PUBLISHED
SINCE 1997
 
Archaeology cover
Estonian Journal of Archaeology
ISSN 1736-7484 (Electronic)
ISSN 1406-2933 (Print)

THE DATE OF THE STONE-CIST CEMETERY AT JÕELÄHTME RECONSIDERED; pp. 55–89

Full article in PDF format | 10.3176/arch.2021.1.03

Author
Margot Laneman

Abstract

Fifteen radiocarbon dates of inhumed burials were obtained for the 36 stone-cist graves at Jõelähtme, the largest completely excavated stone-cist cemetery in Estonia, to confirm and complement the typo-chronological date based on the Nordic Bronze Age chronology. The bronze artefacts of Nordic origin, such as razors, tweezers, double buttons, and looped toggles, in which the cemetery is, in the local context, exceptionally rich, date from Montelian Periods IV and V, more specifically perhaps around the turn of the periods. This is in good accordance with the radiocarbon dates, which show that burial began around 1000 BC at the latest and ended around 900 BC at the earliest. It is likely that the lifespan of the cemetery was longer between 1100 (less likely, 1200) and 800 BC. Besides the human remains, a dog bone and a cat bone were radiocarbon dated to ca AD 260–540 and 990–1160, respectively. Particularly surprising was the late date for the dog, because the separate cist apparently built for dogs suggested a date contemporary with the Bronze Age burials.


References


AI PP 212–214 = Proovivõtu protokoll / Sampling report, Nos 212–214, 01.02.2016. (In the archive of the Archaeological Research Collection at Tallinn University.)

Arnoldussen, S. & Steegstra, H. 2018. Looking sharp: Dutch Bronze Age razors and tweezers in context. – Palaeohistoria: Acta et Communicationes Instituti Archaeologici Universitatis Groninganae, 59/60 (2017/2018). Eds F. Kramer et al. University of Groningen, Groningen, 1–47.

Baudou, E. 1960. Die regionale und chronologische Einteilung der jüngeren Bronzezeit im Nordischen Kreis. (Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis. Studies in North-European Archaeology, 1.) Almqvist & Wiksell, Stockholm.

Bergerbrant, S. 2005. Female interaction during the early and middle Bronze Age Europe, with special focus on bronze tubes. – Gender Locales and Local Genders in Archaeology. Ed. T. Hjørungdal. (BAR International Series, 1425.) Archaeopress, Oxford, 13–23.

Bitz-Thorsen, J. & Gotfredsen, A. B. 2018. Domestic cats (Felis catus) in Denmark have increased significantly in size since the Viking Age. – Danish Journal of Archaeology, 7: 2, 241–254.

Bronk Ramsey, C. 2009. Bayesian analysis of radiocarbon dates. – Radiocarbon, 51: 1, 337–360.

Ciglis, J. 2011. Ancient temple ornaments in Latvia. – Archaeologia Lituana, 12, 48–56.

Colling, T. 1986. Ingen ordning, sa katten. – Fataburen: husdjuren och vi. Nordiska museets och Skansens årsbok, 193–202.

Cummings, B. D. 2013. Our Debt to the Dog: How the Domestic Dog Helped Shape Human Societies. Carolina Academic Press, Durham.

De Grossi Mazzorin, J. & Minniti, C. 2006. Dog sacrifice in the ancient world: a ritual passage? – Snyder & Moore, 62–66.

Driscoll, C. A., Clutton-Brock, J., Kitchener, A. C. & O’Brien, S. J. 2009. The taming of the cat. – Scientific American, June, 68–75.

Eerma, S. 2013. Pronksiaegsed kivikalmed Rebalas – mille poolest see koht nii eriline on? – Maaleht, 01.04.

Eesti reisijuht. 2016. Regio.

Ehrlich, F., Rannamäe, E., Laneman, M., Tõrv, M., Lang, V., Oras, E. & Lõugas, L. Forthcoming 2021. In search of the earliest chicken in Estonia. – EJA.

Faure, E. & Kitchener, A. C. 2009. An archaeological and historical review of the relationships between felids and people. – Anthrozoös, 22: 3, 221–238.
https://doi.org/10.2752/175303709X457577

Forsgren, M. 2007. Depåfyndet från Härnevi, I: föremålsförståelse och genusperspektiv med utgångspunkt från ett s.k. skrotfynd från yngre bronsålder i Uppland. Kandidatuppsats i arkeologi. Stockholms universitet.

Friedenthal, A. 1929. Bericht über die im August 1929 im Auftrage der Estländischen Literärischen Gesellschaft von Dr. A. Friedenthal vorgenommenen archäologischen Ausgrabungen. (Manuscript in the archive of the archaeology department at the University of Tartu.)

Gräslund, A.-S. 2004. Dogs in graves – a question of symbolism? – Pecus. Man and Animal in Antiquity: Proceedings of the Conference at the Swedish Institute in Rome, September 9–12, 2002. Ed. B. Santillo Frizell. (The Swedish Institute in Rome. Projects and Seminars, 1.) Rome, 167–176.

Gustavsson, A. 2012. Artefacts and bone patterns in stone ship settings on Gotland. Master’s thesis in archaeology. University of Gotland.

Hansson, H. 1927. Gotlands bronsålder: akademisk avhandling. (Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademiens Handlingar, 37: 1.) Viktor Petterson, Stockholm.

Harding, A. 2008. Razors and male identity in the Bronze Age. – Durch die Zeiten… Festschrift für Albrecht Jockenhövel zum 65. Geburtstag. Hrsg. F. Verse et al. (Internationale Archäologie. Studia honoraria, 28.) Leidorf, Rahden, 191–195.

Hornstrup, K. M. 2017. From bird wings to fool’s gold: Organic materials and stone from burials of the Late Bronze Age. – New Perspectives on the Bronze Age: Proceedings of the 13th Nordic Bronze Age Symposium Held in Gothenburg 9th to 15th June 2015. Eds S. Bergerbrant & A. Wessman. Archaeopress, 81–93.

Hornstrup, K. M. 2018. Fragmenter, omdannede genstande og social status i yngre bronzealder. – Status og samfundsstruktur i yngre bronzealders kulturlandskab. Seminarrapport fra seminaret “Status og samfundsstruktur i yngre bronzealders lokale kulturlandskab” afholdt i Viborg, 2.–3. marts 2016. Red. S. Boddum & N. Terkildsen. (Yngre bronzealders kulturlandskab, 6.) Viborg Museum, Holstebro Museum, 101–113.

Hornstrup, K. M., Olsen, J., Heinmeier, J., Thrane, H. & Bennike, P. 2012. A new absolute Danish Bronze Age chronology as based on radiocarbon dating of cremated bone samples from burials. – Acta Archaeologica, 83, 9–53.

Jaanits, L., Laul, S., Lõugas, V. & Tõnisson, E. 1982. Eesti esiajalugu. Eesti Raamat, Tallinn.

Jennbert, K. 2003. Animal graves: dog, horse and bear. – Current Swedish Archaeology, 11, 139–152.

Jõelähtme kivikirstkalmistu. 2003. – Eesti entsüklopeedia, 12. [Internet] 
http://entsyklopeedia.ee/artikkel/j%C3%B5el%C3%A4htme_kivikirstkalmistu (04.06.2020).

Johanson, K. 2006. The contribution of stray finds for studying everyday practices – the example of stone axes. – EJA, 10: 2, 99–131.

Johansson, C. 2011. Rakknivar och dess symboler. C-uppsats. Linnéuniversitetet.

Jonuks, T. 2006. Koerad Eesti asukate viikingiaja maailmapildis. – Mäetagused, 31, 29–48.
https://doi.org/10.7592/MT2005.31.jonuks

Jonuks, T. 2009. Eesti muinasusund. (Dissertationes Archaeologiae Universitatis Tartuensis, 2.) Tartu Ülikooli Kirjastus.

Kalman, J. sine anno. Jõelähtme skeletal report. (Manuscript in the archive of the Archaeological Research Collection at Tallinn University.)

Kaul, F. 1998. Ships on Bronzes: Study in Bronze Age Religion and Iconography, 1. (Publications from the National Museum, 3: 1.) National Museum, Copenhagen.

Kneisel, J. 2013. New chronological research of the Late Bronze Age in Scandinavia. – Danish Journal of Archaeology, 2: 2, 95–111.
https://doi.org/10.1080/21662282.2013.904129

Kneisel, J. Forthcoming 2021. Chronology and transformation: The transition from Bronze to Iron Age in Northern Europe. – Time and Materiality: Periodization and Regional Chronologies at the Transition from Bronze to Iron Age in Eurasia (1200–600 BCE). Eds E. Kaiser et al.

Kõivupuu, M. 2017. Loomad eestlaste elus ja folklooris. Tänapäev, Tallinn.

Kraut, A. 1985. Die Steinkistengräber von Jõelähtme. – TATÜ, 34: 4, 348–350.

Kraut, A. 2007. Rebala kaitseala eellugu 1975–1987. – Maa mäletab… Valitud artiklid aastatest 1977–2007, pühendatud Vello Lõugase mälestusele ja kaitseala 20. aastapäevale. Toim M. Pärtel & M. Kusma. (Rebala muinsuskaitseala toimetised.) Jõelähtme, 12–39.

Kraut, A. & Varul, L. 2012. Kirjavahetus Ants Kraudiga, märts 2012: lisaküsimused seoses Jõelähtme kalmeväljaga. – Varul, L. 2012. Kivikirstkalmete uurimine osteoloogiliste meetodite abil Jõelähtme kalmete nr 6, 7, 15, 16 ja 19 näitel. Bakalaureusetöö. Tartu Ülikool, lisa 3, 76–81.

Kriiska, A., Lõugas, L. & Saluäär, U. 1998. Archaeological excavations of the Stone Age settlement site and ruin of the stone cist grave of the Early Metal Age in Kaseküla. – AVE, 1997, 30–43.

Laneman, M. 2012. Stone-cist grave at Kaseküla, western Estonia, in the light of AMS dates of the human bones. – EJA, 16: 2, 91–117.

Laneman, M. Forthcoming 2021. Chronology of a group of stone-cist graves in northern Estonia: radiocarbon dates from Lastekangrud at Rebala. – EJA, 25: 2.

Laneman, M. & Lang, V. 2013a. New radiocarbon dates for two stone-cist graves at Muuksi, northern Estonia. – EJA, 17: 2, 89–122.

Laneman, M. & Lang, V. 2013b. Jõelähtme kivikirstkalmete kaevamisel saadud keraamika. (Manuscript in the archive of the archaeology department at the University of Tartu.)

Laneman, M., Lang, V., Malve, M. & Rannamäe, E. 2015. New data on Jaani stone graves at Väo, northern Estonia. – EJA, 19: 2, 110–137.

Lang, V. 1992. Eesti labidaspeaga luunõelte dateerimisest. – Stilus, 1. Eesti Arheoloogiaseltsi teated, 8–32.

Lang, V. 1996. Muistne Rävala: muistised, kronoloogia ja maaviljelusliku asustuse kujunemine Loode-Eestis, eriti Pirita jõe alamjooksu piirkonnas, I–II. (MT, 4. Töid arheoloogia alalt, 4.) Eesti Teaduste Akadeemia Ajaloo Instituut, Tallinn.

Lang, V. 2000. Keskusest ääremaaks: viljelusmajandusliku asustuse kujunemine ja areng Vihasoo–Palmse piirkonnas Virumaal. (MT, 7.) Tallinn.

Lang, V. 2007a. The Bronze and Early Iron Ages in Estonia. (Estonian Archaeology, 3.) Tartu University Press.

Lang, V. 2007b. Baltimaade pronksi- ja rauaaeg. Tartu Ülikooli Kirjastus.

Lang, V. 2018. Läänemeresoome tulemised. (MT, 28.) Tartu Ülikooli Kirjastus.

Lang, V. & Kriiska, A. 2001. Eesti esiaja periodiseering ja kronoloogia. – EAA, 5: 2, 61–71.

Lang, V. & Ligi, P. 1991. Muistsed kalmed ajaloolise demograafia allikana. – Arheoloogiline kogumik. Toim L. Jaanits & V. Lang. (MT, 1.) Agu, Tallinn, 216–238.

Lang, V., Laneman, M., Ilves, K. & Kalman, J. 2001. Fossil fields and stone-cist graves of Rebala revisited. – AVE, 2000, 34–47.

Lloveras, L., Thomas, R., Garcia, A., Florensa, F., Segura, S., Medina, E., Orri, E. & Nadal, J. 2017. Evidence of cat (Felis catus) fur exploitation in medieval Iberia. – International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 27, 867–879.

Lõugas, V. 1981. Archäologische Rettungsgrabungen im neuen Wohngebiet Lasnamäe in Tallinn. – TATÜ, 30: 4, 390–393.

Lõugas, V. 1988. Arheoloogiamälestised. – Harju rajooni ajaloo- ja kultuurimälestised. Koost E. Vainu. Eesti Raamat, Tallinn, 8–49.

Lõugas, V. 1998. Archaeological excavations on the settlement site of Jõelähtme. – AVE, 1997, 156–160.

Lõugas, V. & Selirand, J. 1989. Arheoloogiga Eestimaa teedel. Teine, parandatud ja täiendatud trükk. Valgus, Tallinn.

Lysenko, S. D. 2015. = Лысенко C. Д. К вопросу о культурной принадлежности Гордеевского могильника. – Доисторическая Европа: интерпретация культур. (Stratum plus, 2.) Ред. И. В. Манзура & С. В. Церна. Санкт-Петербург и др., 207–230.

Lysenko, S. D. & Lysenko, S. S. 2009. Ground communications of the eastern area of the Trzciniec Culture area. – Baltic-Pontic Studies, 14, 337–366.

Lysenko, S. S. 2002. = Лысенко С. С. Подвески белогрудовского типа. – Музейні читання: матеріали наукової конференції грудень 2001 р. Міністерство Культури і містецтв України, Музей історичніх коштовностей України, Київ, 116–125.

Mägi, M. 1996. Archaeological excavations at Tõnija Tuulingumäe, Saaremaa. – TATÜ, 45: 4, 427–433.

Mägi, M. 1999. Tuulingumäe tarandkalme Tõnijal. – Saaremaa Muuseumi kaheaastaraamat, 1997–1998, 3–17.

Maldre, L. 2000. Tõugu II kalme arheozooloogiline materjal. – Lang, V. 2000, Appendix 4, 409–422.

Malve, M. & Laneman, M. 2015. Jõelähtme 34. kalme luustikud. (Manuscript in the archive of the archaeology department at the University of Tartu.)

Mandel, M. 1975. Ausgrabungen der Steingräber von Kaseküla. – TATÜ, 24: 1, 74–76.

Mannermaa, K., Ukkonen, P. & Viranta, S. 2014. Prehistory and early history of dogs in Finland. – Fennoscandia Archaeologica, 31, 25–44.

Montelius, O. 1917. Minnen från vår forntid, I: stenåldern och bronsåldern. Norstedt & Söner, Stockholm.

Mook, W. G. & Waterbolk, H. T. 1985. Radiocarbon Dating. (Handbooks for Archaeologists, 3.) European Science Foundation, Strasbourg.

Moora, H. 1938. Die Eisenzeit in Lettland bis etwa 500 n. Chr. II Teil: Analyse. (Õpetatud Eesti Seltsi toimetused, 29.) Õpetatud Eesti Selts, Tartu.

Morris, J. 2011. Investigating Animal Burials: Ritual, Mundane and Beyond. (BAR British Series, 535.) Archaeopress.
https://doi.org/10.30861/9781407308128

Nabhan, M. 2017. Zwischen Natur und Kultur: der Grenzgänger Hund. Zur Symbolik der Gattung Canis unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Haushundes (Canis familiaris). – Auf den Hund gekommen: interdisziplinäre Annäherung an ein Verhältnis. Hrsg. N. Burzan & R. Hitzler. Springer, 17–32.

Olsen, J., Hornstrup, K. M., Heinemeier, J., Bennike, P. & Thrane, H. 2011. Chronology of the Danish Bronze Age based on 14C dating of cremated bone remains. – Radiocarbon, 53: 2, 261–275.

Oras, E., Lang, V., Rannamäe, E., Varul, L., Konsa, M., Limbo-Simovart, J., Vedru, G., Laneman, M., Malve, M. & Price, T. D. 2016. Tracing prehistoric migration: Isotope analysis of Bronze and Pre-Roman Iron Age coastal burials in Estonia. – EJA, 20: 1, 3–32.
https://doi.org/10.3176/arch.2016.1.01

Ots, M. 2006. Merevaiguleiud Baltimaade kivi- ja pronksiaja muististes. Magistritöö. Tartu Ülikool.  

Ottoni, C., Van Neer, W., De Cupere, B., Daligault, J., Guimaraes, S., Peters, J., Spassov, N., Prendergast, M. E., Boivin, N., Morales-Muñiz, A., Bălăşescu, A., Becker, C., Benecke, N., Boroneant, A., Buitenhuis, H., Chahoud, J., Crowther, A., Llorente, L., Manaseryan, N., Monchot, H., Onar, V., Osypińska, M., Putelat, O., Quintana Morales, E. M., Studer, J., Wierer, W., Decorte, R., Grange, T. & Geigl, E.-M. 2017. The palaeogenetics of cat dispersal in the ancient world. – Nature Ecology and Evolution, 1, 0139. 
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-017-0139

Pajo, M. 2006. Rebala kaitseala vajab muutusi. – Jõelähtme Vallaleht, 116.

Pallo, S. & Russow, E. 2008. Piiburaamat. Tallinn.

Pärtel, M. sine anno. Eesti vanimad kivikirstkalmed Jõelähtmes. Rebala kaitseala. Eesti Kultuurkapital. [Brochure.]

Pillak, P. 1998. Vello Lõugas in memoriam. – Tuna: Ajalookultuuri Ajakiri, 1, 116–122.

Podėnas, V. & Čivilytė, A. 2019. Bronze casting and communication in the southeastern Baltic Bronze Age. – Lietuvos Archeologija, 45, 169–199.

Poole, K. 2015. The contextual cat: Human–animal relations and social meaning in Anglo-Saxon England. – Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 22, 857–882.

Prehal, B. 2011. Freyja’s Cats: Perspectives on Recent Viking Age Finds in Þegjandadalur North Iceland. Master’s thesis. Hunter College of the City University of New York.

Punning, M. 2005. Kuidas hinnata radioaktiivse süsiniku meetodit tänapäeval? – Eesti Loodus, 11, 18–22.

Rannamäe, E., Lõugas, L., Speller, C. F., Valk, H., Maldre, L., Wilczyński, J., Mikhailov, A. & Saarma, U. 2016. Three thousand years of continuity in the maternal lineages of ancient sheep (Ovis aries) in Estonia. – PLoS ONE 11(10), e0163676. 
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0163676

Rebala muinsuskaitseala. 2019. – Wikipedia. [Internet] 
https://et.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Rebala_muinsuskaitseala&oldid=5183642 (04.06.2020).

Reimer, P. J., Austin, W. E. N., Bard, E., Bayliss, A., Blackwell, P. G., Bronk Ramsey, C., Butzin, M., Cheng, H., Edwards, R. L., Friedrich, M., Grootes, P. M., Guilderson, T. P., Hajdas, I., Heaton, T. J., Hogg, A. G., Hughen, K. A., Kromer, B., Manning, S. W., Muscheler, R., Palmer, J. G., Pearson, C., van der Plicht, J., Reimer, R. W., Richards, D. A., Scott, E. M., Southon, J. R., Turney, C. S. M., Wacker, L., Adolphi, F., Büntgen, U., Capano, M., Fahrni, S. M., Fogtmann-Schulz, A., Friedrich, R., Köhler, P., Kudsk, S., Miyake, F., Olsen, J., Reinig, F., Sakamoto, M., Sookdeo, A. & Talamo, S. 2020. The IntCal20 Northern Hemisphere radiocarbon age calibration curve (0–55 cal kBP). – Radiocarbon, 62: 4, 725–757.

Rohtla, M.-L. 2005. Crossbow fibula as a reflection of social status and relations. – Culture and Material Culture: Papers from the First Theoretical Seminar of the Baltic Archaeologists (BASE) Held at the University of Tartu, Estonia, October 17th–19th, 2003. Ed. V. Lang. (Interarchaeologia, 1.) Tartu, Riga, Vilnius, 121–145.

Saag, L., Laneman, M., Varul, L., Malve, M., Valk, H., Razzak, M. A., Shirobokov, I. G., Khartanovich, V. I., Mikhaylova, E. R., Kushniarevich, A., Scheib, C. L., Solnik, A., Reisberg, T., Parik, J., Saag, L., Metspalu, E., Rootsi, S., Montinaro, F., Remm, M., Mägi, R., D’Atanasio, E., Ryunosuke Crema, E., Diez-del-Molini, D., Thomas, M. G., Kriiska, A., Kivisild, T., Villems, R., Lang, V., Metspalu, M. & Tambets, K. 2019. The arrival of Siberian ancestry connecting the Eastern Baltic to Uralic speakers further east. – Current Biology, 29: 10, 1701–1711.

Šafranovski, J. 2014. Jõelähtme põrgukoerad. – Maaleht, 29.04.

Snyder, L. M. & Moore, E. A. (eds) 2006. Dogs and People in Social, Working, Economic or Symbolic Interaction. (Proceedings of the 9th Conference of the International Council of Archaeozoology, Durham, August 2002.) Oxbow Books.

Sperling, U. 2014. Aspekte des Wandels in der Bronzezeit im Ostbaltikum: die Siedlungen der Asva-Gruppe in Estland. (EJA. Supplementary Volume, 18/2S.) Tallinn.

Spreckelsen, A. 1926. Ausgrabungen in Neuenhof, Kirchsp. Kusal, Dorf Muuksi, Lõokese-Gesinde. – Beiträge zur Kunde Estlands, 11, 38–42.

Storn, B. 2008. Det är det små tingen som gör det... Rakknivens respektive pincettens roller och dualism i den nordiska bronsålderns samhälle. CD-uppsats. Lunds Universitet.

Šturms, E. 1935. Die Kulturbeziehungen Estlands in der Bronze- und frühen Eisenzeit. – Sitzungsberichte der Gelehrten Estnischen Gesellschaft, 1932, 243–277.

Thedéen, S. 2003. Life course practices in Bronze Age landscapes of east central Sweden: Beyond divine chiefs and neodiffusionism. – Current Swedish Archaeology, 11, 97–118.

Toplak, M. S. 2019. The warrior and the cat: A re-evaluation of the roles of domestic cats in Viking Age Scandinavia. – Current Swedish Archaeology, 27, 213–245.
https://doi.org/10.37718/CSA.2019.10

Tvauri, A. 2001. Muinas-Tartu: uurimus Tartu muinaslinnuse ja asula asustusloost. (MT, 10.) Tartu, Tallinn.

Tvauri, A. 2012. The Migration Period, Pre-Viking Age, and Viking Age in Estonia. (Estonian Archaeology, 4.) Tartu University Press.
https://doi.org/10.26530/OAPEN_423944

Varul, L. 2016. Jõelähtme kivikirstkalmete 1–9, 12–24, 34–36 inimluude analüüs. Aruanne. Tartu. (Manuscript in the archive of the archaeology department at the University of Tartu.)

Varul, L. & Rannamäe, E. 2014. Solving the puzzle of a Bronze Age stone-cist grave at Jõelähtme, Estonia. – Student Archaeology in Europe 2014:Conference Proceedings of the Student Session of the 19th Annual Meeting of the European Association of Archaeologists in Pilsen and 5th Student Conference ‘The Landscape in the Past, the Past in the Landscape’. Eds P. Krištuf et al. University of West Bohemia, 152–158.

Vassar, A. 1937. Kaevamisaruanne Kuusalu khk. Kolga vl. Muuksi kl. Sepa tl. kivikangrul 24.–30. juuli ja 1.– 8. august 1937. a. (Manuscript in the archive of the Archaeological Research Collection at Tallinn University.)

Vassar, A. 1938. Drei Steinkistengräber aus Nordestland. – Õpetatud Eesti Seltsi aastaraamat, 1937, 1, 304–364.

Vedru, G. 1998. New archaeological data of the prehistory of Lake Kahala area. – AVE, 1997, 62–66.

Warmenbol, E. 2015. Nordic Late Bronze Age razors: ‘Very like a whale’. – Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt, 45: 4, 487–497.

Wehlin, J. 2013. Östersjön skeppssättningar: monument och mötesplatser under yngre bronsålder. (GOTARC Serie B. Gothenburg Archaeological Theses, 59.) Göteborgs Universitet, Inst. för historiska studier.

White, T. D. & Folkens, P. A. 2000. Human Osteology. 2nd ed. Academic Press, San Diego etc.

Zinoviev, A. V. 2018. Study of the medieval domestic cats from Novgorod with reference to cats from medieval Tver (Russia; 10–14 centuries). – International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 28: 2, 109–119.


Back to Issue