ESTONIAN ACADEMY
PUBLISHERS
eesti teaduste
akadeemia kirjastus
PUBLISHED
SINCE 1997
 
Archaeology cover
Estonian Journal of Archaeology
ISSN 1736-7484 (Electronic)
ISSN 1406-2933 (Print)
LEARNING THE TECHNOLOGIES OF MAKING BEADED WIRE; pp. 36-52
PDF | doi: 10.3176/arch.2009.1.03

Authors
Ülle Tamla, Harvi Varkki
Abstract
The article discusses the process and results of experimental archaeology carried out in Tallinn in 2008/2009 to learn about and revive the technologies of making beaded wire. Such technologies that were once commonly known have by now been forgotten at least in Europe. Several experiments led to the recognition that beaded wire can be made with the aid of two iron knives. Knowing the material properties of gold and silver implementing specific working methods guarantees the making of beaded wire with the aid of two knives – the technology was easily understood, the result was effective and the quality constant. The use of beaded wire was closely connected with the filigree and granulation techniques and it may be possible that beaded wire was abandoned in favour of filigree wire that required less specific skills.
References

Andersson, K. 1995. Romartida guldsmide i Norden, III. Övriga smycken, teknisk analys och verkstadsgrupper. (Aun, 21.) Uppsala University, Uppsala.

Armbruster, B., Comendador, B., Montero, I., Perea, A. & Pernot, M. 2003.Tools and tool marks. Gold and bronze metallurgy in Western Europe during the Bronze Age and Early Iron Age (1). – International Conference Archaeometallurgy in Europe 24–25–26 September 2003 Milan, Italy. Proceedings, vol. 1. Associazione Italiana di Metallurgia, Milano, 255–265. 

Batley, C., Clarke, H., Page, R. I. & Price, N. S. 1994. Cultural Atlas of the Viking World. Facts on File, New York.

Brepohl, E. 1987. Theophilus Presbyter und das mittelalterliche Kunsthandwerk (Gesamtausgabe der Schrift De Diversis Artibus in zwei Bänden). Bd. 2. Goldschmiedekunst. Bohlau.

Coles, J. M. 1973. Archaeology by Experiment. Hutchinson, London.

Duczko, W. 1985. The Filigree and Granulation Work of the Viking Period. An Analysis of the Material from Björko. (Birka, V.) Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademine, Stockholm.

Eniosova, N. V. & Saracheva, T. G. 1997. = Ениосова Н. В. & Сарачева Т. Г. Средневековое ювелирное ремесло Европы: основные аспекты в истории изучения. – Древности Евразии. Московский государственный университет им. М. В. Ломоносова, Москвa, 286–316.

Evans, J. 1970. A History of Jewellery, 1100–1870. Boston Book and Art, Boston.

Fuglesang, S. H. & Wilson, D. M. (eds).2006. The Hoen Hoard: A Viking Gold Treasure of the Ninth Century. (Norske oldfunn, XX.) Bardi Editore, Roma.

Hansen, G. 1875. Die Sammlungen inländischer Altherthümer und anderer auf die baltischen Provinzen bezüglichen Gegenstände des Estländischer Provinzial-Museums. Reval.

Hawthorne, J. G. & Smith, C. S. 1979. On Divers Arts. The Treatise of Theophilus. Dover, New York.

Ilkjær, J. 2000.Illerup Ådal. Archaeology as a Magic Mirror. Moesgård museum, Moesgård.

Leimus, I. 2006. Viikingid – röövlid või kaupmehed? – Tuna, 1, 17–29.

Lynn, T. 1965. Words in Theophilus. (Technology and Culture, 6.) London, 442–443.

Mathieu, J. R. (ed.). 2002a. Experimental Archaeology. Replicating Past Objects, Behaviours, and Processes. (BAR International Series, 1035.) Archaeolpress, Oxford.

Mathieu, J. R. 2002b. Introduction – experimental archaeology: replicating past objects, behaviours, and processes. – Experimental Archaeology. Replicating Past Objects, Behaviours, and Processes. (BAR International Series, 1035.) Archaeolpress, Oxford, 1–11.

Ogden, J. 1992. Jewellery of the Ancient World. Trefoil, London.

Oldeberg, A. 1966. Metallteknik under vikingatid och medeltid. Seeling, Stockholm.

Peets, J. 2003. The Power of Iron. (MT, 12.) Tallinn.

Put´ iz varjag v greki. 1996. = Путь из варяг в греки и из грек … Каталог выставки. The Road from the Varangians to the Greeks and from the Greeks. Государственный исторический музей, Москвa.

Ramsay, N. 2001. Introduction. – English Medieval Industries: Craftsmen, Techniques, Products. Eds J. Blair & N. Ramsay. Hambledon Press, London, XVII–XXXIV.

Reynolds, P. J. 1999. The nature of experiment in archaeology. – Experiment and Design: Archaeological Studies in Honour of John Coles. Ed. A. F. Harding. Oxbow Books, Oxford, 156162.

RK = Katalog der Ausstellung zum X. archäologischen Kongress in Riga 1896. Riga.

Rybakov, B. A. 1948. = Рыбаков Б. А. Ремесло древней Руси. Москва.

Stemann Petersen, K. 1998. Danish niello inlays from the Iron Age: A technological investigation. – Journal of Danish Archaeology, 1994–1995, 12, 133–149.

Svarāne, D. 1994.Rīgas 13.–14. Gs. Lejamveidnes un tīgeli. (Arheoloģia un etnogrāfija, XVII.) Rīga, 97–104.

Tamla, Ü., Kallavus, U. & Säre, M. 2004. Eksperimentaalarheoloogia: hõbedast muinasehte koopia valmistamine. – Linnusest ja linnast. Uurimusi Vilma Trummali auks. Eds A. Haak, E. Russow & A. Tvauri. (MT, 14.) Tartu, 347–376.

Untracht, O. 1987. Jewellry Concepts and Technology. Hale N.Y., London.

Vilímkova, M. 1969. Altägyptische Goldschmiedekunst. Artia, Prague.

Whitfield, N. 1987. Motifs and techniques of Celtic filigree: are they original? – Ireland and Insular Art AD 500–1200. Ed. M. Ryan. Royal Irish Academy, Dublin, 75–84.

Whitfield, N. 2002. The manufacture of beaded wire in the Post-Roman Period. – I International Symposium on Ancient Gold Technology: America and Europe. Madrid, 23–25 October. http: www.ih.csic.es/paginas/arqueometalurgia/Descargas/DESC_SITOA/Sitoa_Pr1_whitf.pdf

Wolters, J. 1986. Die Granulation. Geschichte und Technik einer alten Goldschmiedekunst. Callwey, München.

Back to Issue