eesti teaduste
akadeemia kirjastus
SINCE 1952
Earth Science cover
Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences
ISSN 1736-7557 (Electronic)
ISSN 1736-4728 (Print)
Impact Factor (2021): 0.811
New Hirnantian orthide brachiopods from the type section of the Porkuni Stage (Porkuni quarry, northeastern Estonia); pp. 227–241
PDF | doi: 10.3176/earth.2012.4.04

Linda Hints

Four new Hirnantian species of orthide brachiopods, Sigmelasma peepi, Mendacella aerinensis, Drabovia? minuta and Tyronella siugensis are described from the type section of the Porkuni Regional Stage in the Porkuni quarry, northeastern Estonia. These species occur in the reef-related shallow-water bituminous limestone (Siuge Member of the Ärina Formation). Sigmelasma peepi and Tyronella siugensis represent the families Wangyuiidae and Tyronellidae, respectively, which were hitherto unknown in the Baltic Ordovician. Additionally, a harknessellid Reuschella sp. is described from the stromatoporoid-coral reefs (Tõrevere Member) and skeletal grainstone (Vohilaid Member) of the same locality and formation. Together these new finds extend our knowledge of the latest Ordovician brachiopod fauna in the Baltic region, showing higher than previously expected diversity of the Porkuni Stage and distinctness of reef-related brachiopods in the shallow shelf environment. The new species are not present in the Hirnantia brachiopod fauna in deeper-water environments of the Central East Baltic.


Bancroft, B. B. 1928. The Harknessellinae. Memoirs of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society Memoirs, 72(12), 173–196.

Bancroft, B. B. 1945. The brachiopod zonal indices of the stages Costonian to Onnian in Britain. Journal of Paleontology, 19, 181–253.

Bergström, J. 1968. Upper Ordovician Brachiopods from Västergötland, Sweden. Geologica et Palaeontologica, 2, 1–35.

Boucot, A. J. 1975. Evolution and Extinction Rate Control. Elsevier, Amsterdam, Oxford, New York, 427 pp.

Boucot, A. J., Johnson, J. G. & Walmsley, V. G. 1965. Revision of the Rhipidomellidae (Brachiopoda) and the affinities of Mendacella and Dalejina. Journal of Paleontology, 39, 331–340.

Brenchley, P. J., Carden, G. A., Hints, L., Kaljo, D., Marshall, J. D., Martma, T., Meidla, T. & Nõlvak, J. 2003. High-resolution stable isotope stratigraphy of Upper Ordovician sequences: constraints on the timing of bioevents and environmental changes associated with mass extinction and glaciation. GSA Bulletin, 115, 89–104.<0089:HRSISO>2.0.CO;2

Candela, Y. 2005. Late Ordovician Brachiopods from the Bardahessiagh Formation of Pomeroy, Ireland. Monograph of the Palaeontographical Society (Publ. No. 618, part of Vol. 156 for 2002), London, 95 pp.

Cocks, L. R. M. 1982. The commoner brachiopods of the latest Ordovician of the Oslo-Asker district, Norway. Palaeontology, 25, 755–781, pls 78–84.

Cocks, L. R. M. & Price, D. 1975. The biostratigraphy of the upper Ordovician and lower Silurian of south-west Dyfed, with comments on the Hirnantia fauna. Palaeontology, 18, 703–724, pls 81–84.

Cooper, G. A. 1930. The brachiopod Pionodema and its homeomorphs. Journal of Paleontology, 4, 369–382.

Cooper, G. A. 1956. Chazyan and related brachiopods. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collection, 127(I–II), pp. 1245, pls 1–269. Washington.

Harper, D. A. T. 2000. Dalmanellidina. In Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part H Brachiopoda Revised (Kaesler, R. L., ed.), pp. 782–844. The Geological Society of America, Inc. and the University of Kansas, Boulder, Colorado, and Lawrence, Kansas.

Harper, D. A. T. & Hints, L. 2001. Distribution and diversity of Ordovician articulated brachiopods in the East Baltic. In Brachiopods, Past and Present (Brunton, C. H. C., Cocks, L. R. M. & Long, S. L., eds), pp. 315–326. Systematics Association Special Volume, 63, Taylor & Francis, London and New York.

Havliček, V. 1950. Ramenonozci Ceského Ordoviku [The Ordovician Brachiopoda from Bohemia]. Rozpravy Ústředního ústavu geologického, 13, 1–72.

Hiller, N. 1980. Ashgill Brachiopoda from the Glyn Ceiriog District, north Wales. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Geology, 34, 109–216.

Hints, L. 1975. Brakhiopody Enteletacea ordovika Pribaltiki [Ordovician Brachiopods Enteletacea of the East Baltic Area]. Punane Täht, Tallinn, 119 pp. [in Russian].

Hints, L. 1986. Genus Streptis (Triplesiidae, Brachiopoda) from the Ordovician and Silurian of Estonia. Eesti NSV TA Toimetised, Geoloogia, 35, 20–26 [in Russian, with English summary].

Hints, L. 1996. The Late Ordovician (Ashgillian) brachiopod associations in the East Baltic. In WOGOGOB-94 Symposium, Working Group on Ordovician Geology of Baltoscandia, Bornholm – 94 (Stouge, S., ed.), pp. 45–52. Denmarks og Grønlands Geologiske Undersøgelse Rapport, 1996/98.

Hints, L. & Harper, D. A. T. 2003. Review of the Ordovician rhynchonelliformean Brachiopoda of the East Baltic: their distribution and biofacies. Bulletin of Geological Society of Denmark, 50, 29–43.

Hints, L., Oraspõld, A. & Kaljo, D. 2000. Stratotype of the Porkuni Stage with comments on the Röa Member (uppermost Ordovician, Estonia). Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences, Geology, 49, 177–199.

Hints, L., Hints, O., Kaljo, D., Kiipli, T., Männik, P., Nõlvak, J. & Pärnaste, H. 2010. Hirnantian (latest Ordovician) bio- and chemostratigraphy of the Stirnas-18 core, western Latvia. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences, 59, 1–24.

Hints, L., Pärnaste, H. & Gailite, L. I. 2012. Hirnantia sagittifera (Brachiopoda) and Mucronaspis mucronata s.l. (Trilobita) in the Upper Ordovician of the East Baltic: taxonomy and distribution. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences, 61, 65–81.

Jin, J. & Bergström, J. 2010. True Dalmanella and taxonomic implications for some Late Ordovician dalmanellid brachiopods from North America. GFF, 132, 13–24.

Jin, J. & Copper, P. 2008. Response of brachiopod communities to environmental change during the Late Ordovician mass extinction interval, Anticosti Island, eastern Canada. Fossils and Strata, 54, 41–51.

Jin, J. & Zhan, R. 2008. Late Ordovician Orthide and Billingsellide Brachiopods from Anticosti Island, Eastern Canada: Diversity Change through Mass Extinction. NRC Research Press, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 159 pp.

Kaljo, D., Hints, L., Martma, T. & Nõlvak, J. 2001. Carbon isotope stratigraphy in the latest Ordovician of Estonia. Chemical Geology, 175, 49–59.

Kaljo, D., Hints, L., Männik, P. & Nõlvak, J. 2008. The succession of Hirnantian events based on data from Baltica: brachiopods, chitinozoans, conodonts, and carbon isotopes. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences, 57, 197–218.

Kaljo, D., Hints, L., Hints, O., Männik, P., Martma, T. & Nõlvak, J. 2011. Katian prelude to the Hirnantian (Late Ordovician) mass extinction: a Baltic perspective. Geological Journal, 46, 464–477.

Lesperance, P. J. & Sheehan, P. M. 1976. Brachiopods from the Hirnantian Stage (Ordovician–Silurian) at Percé, Quebec. Palaeontology, 19, 109–110.

Mitchell, W. I. 1977. The Ordovician Brachiopoda from Pomeroy, Co. Tyrone. Monograph of the Palaeonto­graphical Society, London, 130(545), 1–138, pls 1–28.

Moore, R. C. 1952. Brachiopoda. In Invertebrate Fossils (Moore, R. C., Lalicker, C. G. & Fischer, A. G., eds), pp. 197–267. McGraw-Hill, New York.

Öpik, A. 1934. Über Klitamboniten. Publications of the Geological Institution of the University of Tartu, 39, 1–240.

Oraspõld, A. 1959. Einige Vertreter der Superfamilie Orthacea des oberordoviziums Estland. Tartu Ülikooli Toimetised, 75. Töid Eesti NSV Geoloogia alalt, I, 51–81 [in Russian, with German summary].

Percival, I. G. 1991. Late Ordovician articulate brachiopods from central New South Wales. In Australian Ordovician Brachiopod Studies (Jell, P. A., ed.), Memoir of the Association of Australasian Palaeontologists, 11, 107–177.

Potter, A. W. 1990a. Middle and Late Ordovician brachiopods from the eastern Klamath Mountains, Northern California, Part 1. Palaeontographica Abt. A, 212, 31–158.

Potter, A. W. 1990b. Middle and Late Ordovician brachiopods from the eastern Klamath Mountains, Northern California, Part 2. Palaeontographica Abt. A, 213, 1–114.

Rong, J.-Y. 1984. Brachiopods of latest Ordovician in the Yichang District, western Hubei, central China. In Stratigraphy and Palaeontology of Systematic Boundaries in China. Ordovician–Silurian Boundary (1), pp. 111–176, pls 1–14. Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Academia Sinica.

Rong, J.-Y. & Harper, D. A. T. 1988. A global synthesis of latest Ordovician Hirnantian brachiopod faunas. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Earth Sciences, 79, 383–402.

Rõõmusoks, A. 1967. Stratigrafiya viruskoj i har¢yuskoj serij (ordovik) Severnoj Éstonii [Stratigraphy of the Viru and Harju Series (Ordovician) of North Éstonia]. A dissertation for the Doctor’s Degree in Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, Manuscript, Moscow–Tartu, 1227 pp. [in Russian].

Rõõmusoks, A. 1991. On the stratigraphy and fauna of the boundary beds between the Pirgu and Porkuni stages of North Estonia. Acta et Commentationes Universitatis Tartuensis, 934. Eesti Ordoviitsiumi paleontoloogia ja stratigraafia. Töid Geoloogia alalt, XII, 23–42 [in Russian, with English summary].

Rõõmusoks, A. 2004. Ordovician strophomenoid brachiopods of northern Estonia. Fossilia Baltica, 3, 1–151, 34 plates.

Rubel, M. 2011. Silurian brachiopods Dictyonellida, Stropho­menida, Productida, Orthotetida, Protorthida and Orthida from Estonia. Fossilia Baltica, 4, 1–133, 34 plates.

Scheehan, P. M. & Lespérance, P. J. 1979. Late Ordovician (Ashgillian) brachiopods from the Percé Region of Québec. Journal of Paleontology, 53, 950–967.

Schmidt, F. 1858. Untersuchungen über die silurische Formation von Estland, Nord-Livland und Oesel. Archiv für die Naturkunde Liv-, Ehst- und Kurlands, Ser. I, Bd. 2, Lief.

Schuchert, C. 1913. Class 2. Brachiopoda. In Text-Book of Palaeontology, vol. I, part 1, 2nd ed. (von Zittel, K. A., author; Eastman, C. R., ed.), pp. 355–420, figs 526–636. MacMillian & Co., Ltd. London.

Schuchert, C. & Cooper, G. A. 1932. Brachiopod genera of the suborders Orthoidea and Pentameroidea. Memoirs of the Peabody Museum of Natural History, 4(1), xii, 270 pp., pl. A, 1–29.

Schuchert, C. & LeVene, C. M. 1929. Brachiopoda (generum et genotyporum index et bibliographia). In Fossilium Catalogus, vol. I, Animalia, Pars 42 (Pompeckj, F., ed.), pp. 1–140. W. Junk, Berlin.

Sheehan, P. M. 1987. Late Ordovician (Ashgillian) brachiopods from the region of the Sambre and Meuse Rivers, Belgium. Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, 57, 5–81.

Stott, C. A. & Jin, J. 2007. The earliest known Kinnella, an orthide brachiopod from the Upper Ordovician of Manitoulin Island, Ontario, Canada. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 52, 535–546.

Temple, J. T. 1965. Upper Ordovician brachiopods from Poland and Britain. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 10, 379–450.

Temple, J. T. 1968. The Lower Llandovery (Silurian) brachio­pods from Keisley, Westmorland. Monograph of the Palaeontographical Society, London, 122(521), 1–58, pls 1–10.

Waagen, W. 1884. Salt Range fossils, vol. I, part 4. Productus Limestone fossils, Brachiopoda. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India, Palaeontologia Indica, (series 13), fasc. 3–4, 547–728, pls 50–81.

Williams, A. & Wright, A. D. 1963. The classification of the ‘Orthis testudinaria Dalman’ group of brachiopoda. Journal of Paleontology, 37, 1–32.

Wright, A. D. 1964. The fauna of the Portrane Limestone, II. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Geology, 9, 157–256.

Zhang, N. 1989. Wenlockian (Silurian) brachiopods of the Cape Phillips Formation, Baillie Hamilton Island, Arctic Canada: Part I. Palaeontographica Abt. A, 206, 46–97, 10 pls.

Back to Issue