eesti teaduste
akadeemia kirjastus
SINCE 1952
Earth Science cover
Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences
ISSN 1736-7557 (Electronic)
ISSN 1736-4728 (Print)
Impact Factor (2020): 0.789

The crystalline basement of Estonia: rock complexes of the Palaeoproterozoic Orosirian and Statherian and Mesoproterozoic Calymmian periods, and regional correlations; pp. 219–228

Full article in PDF format | doi: 10.3176/earth.2009.4.01

Juho Kirs, Väino Puura, Alvar Soesoo, Vello Klein, Mare Konsa, Heino Koppelmaa, Mati Niin, Kristjan Urtson

New data on the Fennoscandian Shield and the Baltic area suggest a need for reinterpretation of the stratigraphy of Estonian Precambrian rock complexes. The rocks of the Tallinn Zone formed in the framework of the Fennian orogeny at the margin of the Bergslagen microcontinent 1.90–1.88 Ga ago. The precise age of the Alutaguse Zone is not known. It may have formed either during the 1.93–1.91 Ga Lapland–Savo orogeny or as a rifted eastern part of the Tallinn Zone in the Fennian orogeny. The granulites of western and southern Estonia belong to the volcanic arcs inside the 1.84–1.80 Ga Svecobaltic orogenic belt and show peak metamorphic conditions of 1.78 Ga. Small shoshonitic plutons formed 1.83–1.63 Ga, the small granitic plutons of the Wiborg Rapakivi Subprovince 1.67–1.62 Ga, and the Riga pluton 1.59–1.54 Ga ago.

Åhäll, K.-I., Connelly, J. N. & Brewer, T. S. 2000. Episodic rapakivi magmatism due to distal orogenesis? Correlation of 1.69–1.50 Ga orogenic and inboard “anorogenic” events in the Baltic Shield. Geology, 28, 823–826.

All, T., Puura, V. & Vaher, R. 2004. Orogenic structures of the Precambrian basement of Estonia as revealed from the integrated modelling of the crust. Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences, Geology, 53, 165–189.

Andersson, U. B. 1997. Petrogenesis of some Proterozoic granitoid suites and associated basic rocks in Sweden (geochemistry and isotope geology). SGU, Rapporter och meddelanden, 91, 1–216.

Bogatikov, O. A. & Birkis, A. P. 1973. Dokembrij Zapadnoj Latvii [Precambrian Magmatism of Western Latvia]. Nauka, Moscow, 138 pp. [in Russian].

Bogdanova, S., Gorbatschev, R., Grad, M., Guterch, A., Janik, T., Kozlovskaya, E., Motuza, G., Skridlaite, G., Starostenko, V., Taran, L. & EUROBRIDGE and POLONAISE Working Groups. 2006. EUROBRIDGE: new insight into the geodynamic evolution of the East European Craton. In European Lithosphere Dynamics (Gee, D. G. & Stephenson, R. A., eds), Geological Society, London, Memoirs, 32, 599–628.

Bogdanova, S. V., Bingen, B., Gorbatschev, R., Kheraskova, T. N., Kozlov, V. I., Puchkov, V. N. & Volozh, Yu. A. 2008. The East European Craton (Baltica) before and during the assembly of Rodinia. Precambrian Research, 160, 23–45.

Dörr, W., Belka, Z., Marheine, D., Schastok, J., Valverde-Vaquero, P. & Wiszniewska, J. 2002. U-Pb and Ar-Ar geochronology of anorogenic granite magmatism of the Mazury complex, NE Poland. Precambrian Research, 119, 101–120.

Eklund, O., Konopelko, D., Rutanen, H., Fröjdö, S. & Shebanov, A. 1998. 1.8 Ga Svecofennian post-collisional shoshonitic magmatism in the Fennoscandian shield. Lithos, 45, 87–108.

Elo, S. & Korja, A. 1993. Geophysical interpretation of the crustal and upper mantle structure in the Wiborg rapakivi granite area, southeastern Finland. Precambrian Research, 64, 273–288.

Emslie, R. F., Hamilton, M. A. & Therriault, R. J. 1994. Petrogenesis of a Mid-Proterozoic anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite-granite (AMCG) complex: isotopic and chemical evidence from the Nain Plutonic Suite. Journal of Geology, 102, 539–558.

Fotiadi, E. 1958. Geological structure of the Russian Platform on the basis of regional geophysical and deep drilling data. Trudy VNII Geofiziki, 4, 1–244 [in Russian].

Gaal, G. & Gorbatschev, R. 1987. An outline of the Precambrian Evolution of the Baltic Shield. Precambrian Research, 35, 15–52.

Gafarov, R. A. 1963. Structure of the Precambrian Basement in the North of the Russian Platform (according to the data of regional geophysical researches). Academy of Sciences USSR Geol. Inst. Transactions, 85, 1–212 [in Russian].

Gorbatschev, R. & Bogdanova, S. 1993. Frontiers in the Baltic Shield. Precambrian Research, 64, 3–21.

Gradstein, F. M., Ogg, J. G., Smith, A. G., Agterberg, F. P., Bleeker, W., Cooper, R. A., Davydov, V., Gibbard, P., Hinnov, L., House, M. R., Lourens, L., Luterbacher, H.-P., McArthur, J., Melchin, M. J., Robb, L. J., Shergold, J., Villeneuve, M., Wardlaw, B. R., Ali, J., Brinkhuis, H., Hilgen, F. J., Hooker, J., Howarth, R. J., Knoll, A. H., Laskar, J., Monechi, S., Powell, J., Plumb, K. A., Raffi, I., Röhl, U., Sanfilippo, A., Schmitz, B., Shackleton, N. J., Shields, G. A., Strauss, H., Van Dam, J., Veizer, J., van Kolfschoten, Th. & Wilson, D. 2004. A Geologic Time Scale 2004. Cambridge University Press, 500 pp.

Huhma, H., Puura, V., Klein, V. & Mänttäri, I. 1991. Nd-isotopic evidence for Palaeoproterozoic crust in Estonia. Geological Survey of Finland, Special Paper, 12, 67–68.

Kirs, J. & Petersell, V. 1994. Age and geochemical character of plagiomicrocline granite veins in the Abja gabbro-dioritic massif. Acta et Commentationes Universitatis Tartuensis, 972, 3–15.

Kirs, J., Soesoo, A. & Puura, V. 2006. Geochemistry and age of the Baltic Sea brown and red quartz porphyries. In The 27th Nordic Geological Winter Meeting Abstract Volume: The 27th Nordic Geological Winter Meeting; Oulu, Finland; 9–12 January, 2006 (Peltonen, P. & Pasanen, A., eds), Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland, Special Issue, 1, 67.

Koistinen, T. (ed.). 1996. Explanation to the Map of Pre­cambrian basement of the Gulf of Finland and surrounding area 1 : 1 mill. Geological Survey of Finland, Special Paper, 21, 1–141.

Korhonen, J., Koistinen, T., Elo, S., Säävuori, H., Kääriäinen, J., Nevanlinna, H., Aaro, S., Haller, L. Å., Skilbrei, J. R., Solheim, D., Chepik, A. K., Zhdanova, L., Vaher, R., All, T. & Sildvee, H. 1999. Preliminary magnetic and gravity anomaly maps of the Fennoscandian shield 1 : 10 000 000. Geological Survey of Finland, Special Paper, 27, 173–179.

Korja, A. & Heikkinen, P. J. 1995. Proterozoic extensional tectonics of the central Fennoscandian Shield: results from the BABEL experiment. Tectonics, 14, 504–517.

Korja, A., Lahtinen, R. & Nironen, M. 2006. The Sveco­fennian orogen: a collage of microcontinents and island arcs. In European Lithosphere Dynamics (Gee, D. G. & Stephenson, R. A., eds), Geological Society, London, Memoirs, 32, 561–578.

Krzeminska, E., Williams, I. & Wiszniewska, J. 2005. A Late Paleoproterozoic (1.80 Ga) subduction-related mafic igneous suite from Lomza, NE Poland. Terra Nova, 17, 442–449.

Lahtinen, R., Korja, A. & Nironen, M. 2005. Palaeo­proterozoic tectonic evolution of the Fennoscandian Shield. In The Precambrian Bedrock of Finland Key to the Evolution of the Fennoscandian Shield (Lehtinen, M., Nurmi, P. & Rämö, T., eds), pp. 418–532. Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam.

Lahtinen, R., Garde, A. A. & Melezhik, V. A. 2008. Paleo­proterozoic evolution of Fennoscandia and Greenland. Episodes, 31, 20–28.

Linnemann, U., Romer, R. L., Pin, C., Aleksandrowski, P., Buła, Z., Geisler, T., Kachlik, V., Krzemińska, E., Mazur, S., Motuza, G., Murphy, J. B., Nance, R. D., Pisarevsky, S. A., Schulz, B., Ulrich, J., Wiszniewska, J., Zaba, J. & Zeh, A. 2008. Precambrian. In The Geology of Central Europe. Volume I: Precambrian and Palaeozoic (McCann, T., ed.), pp. 21–101. Geological Society, London.

Mansfeld, J. 1996. Geological, geochemical and geochrono­logical evidence for a new Palaeoproterozoic terrane in southeastern Sweden. Precambrian Research, 77, 91–103.

Mansfeld, J., Beunk, F. F. & Barling, J. 2005. 1.83–1.82 Ga formation of a juvenile volcanic arc – implications from U–Pb and Sm–Nd analyses of the Oskarshamn-Jönköping Belt, southeastern Sweden. GFF, 127, 149–157.

Motuza, G. 2005. Structure and formation of the crystalline crust in Lithuania. Mineralogical Society of Poland, Special Papers, 26, 69–79.

Motuza, G., Motuza, V., Salnikova, E. & Kotov, A. 2008. Extensive charnockitic-granitic magmatism in the crystalline crust of West Lithuania. Geologija, 61(1), 1–16.

Neymark, L. A., Amelin, J. V. & Larin, A. M. 1994. Pb-Nd-Sr isotopic and geochemical constraints on the origin of the 1.54–1.56 Ga Salmi rapakivi granite-anorthosite batholith (Karelia, Russia). Mineralogy and Petrology, 50, 173–193.

Niin, M. 1976. To the stratigraphy of the middle Proterozoic Hogland series in northern Baltic. In Materialy po stratigrafii Pribaltiki [Materials on Baltic Stratigraphy] (Grigelis, A. A., ed.), pp. 15–17. Lit. NIGRI, Vilnius [in Russian].

Niin, M. 1997. About the crystalline basement of Suursaar and Suur-Tütarsaar islands. In About Geology of Finnish Bay (Pirrus, E., ed.), Estonian Geological Society, Bulletin, 2/96, 25–31 [in Estonian].

Nironen, M. 1997. The Svecofennian Orogen: a tectonic model. Precambrian Research, 86, 21–44.

Petersell, V. & Levchenkov, O. 1994. On the geological structure of the crystalline basement of the southern slope of the Baltic Shield. Acta et Commentationes Universitatis Tartuensis, 972, 16–39.

Puura, V. (ed.). 1980. Geological Map of the Crystalline Base­ment of the East Baltic. Scale 1 : 1 000 000. VSEGEI, Leningrad.

Puura, V. & Flodén, T. 1996. Subjotnian igneous structures in the Svecofennian domain of the Baltic region. GFF, 118 Jubilee Issue, A22–A23.

Puura, V. & Flodén, T. 1999. Rapakivi-granite-anorthosite magmatism – a way of thinning and stabilisation of the Svecofennian crust, Baltic Sea Basin. Tectonophysics, 305, 75–92.

Puura, V. & Flodén, T. 2000. Rapakivi-related basement structures in the Baltic Sea area, a regional approach. GFF, 122, 257–272.

Puura, V. & Huhma, H. 1993. Palaeoproterozoic age of the East Baltic granulite crust. Precambrian Research, 64, 289–294.

Puura, V., Vaher, R., Klein, V., Koppelmaa, H., Niin, M., Vanamb, V. & Kirs, J. 1983. Kristallicheskij fundament Éstonii [The crystalline basement of Estonian territory]. Nauka, Moscow, 208 pp. [in Russian].

Puura, V., Amantov, A., Koistinen, T. & Laitakari, I. 1992. Precambrian basement. In Geologiya Finskogo zaliva [Geology of the Gulf of Finland] (Raukas, A. & Hyvärinen, H., eds), pp. 13–29. Estonian Academy of Sciences, Tallinn [in Russian, with English and Estonian summaries].

Puura, V., Klein, V., Koppelmaa, H. & Niin, M. 1997. Pre­cambrian basement. In Geology and Mineral Resources of Estonia (Raukas, A. & Teedumäe, A., eds), pp. 27–34. Estonian Academy Publishers, Tallinn.

Puura, V., Hints, R., Huhma, H., Klein, V., Konsa, M., Kuld­kepp, R., Mänttäri, I. & Soesoo, A. 2004. Svecofennian metamorphic zones in the basement of Estonia. Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences, Geology, 53, 190–209.

Ramsay, W. 1892. Kertomus karttalehteen nr 19 & 20. Suur­saari ja Tytärsaari [Explanation to the map sheets No. 19 & 20. Suursaari and Tytärsaari]. Helsinki [in Finnish].

Rämö, O. T. & Haapala, I. 2005. Rapakivi granites. In The Precambrian Bedrock of Finland Key to the Evolution of the Fennoscandian Shield (Lehtinen, M., Nurmi, P. & Rämö, T., eds), pp. 533–562. Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam.

Rämö, O. T., Huhma, H. & Kirs, J. 1996. Radiogenic isotopes of the Estonian and Latvian rapakivi suites: new data from the concealed Precambrian of the East European Craton. Precambrian Research, 79, 209–226.

Rämö, O. T., Mänttäri, I., Huhma, H., Niin, M. & Pokki, J. 2007. 1635 Ma bimodal volcanism associated with the Wiborg rapakivi batholith (Suursaari, Gulf of Finland, Russia). In 6th International Hutton Symposium on the Origin of Granites and Related Rocks, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 2–6 July, 2007 (Miller, J. A. & Kisters, A. F. M., comps and eds), pp. 174–175. Department of Geology, Geography and Environmental Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Skridlaite, G. & Motuza, G. 2001. Precambrian domains in Lithuania: evidence of terrain tectonics. Tectonophysics, 339, 113–133.

Skridlaite, G., Willingshofer, E. & Stephenson, R. 2003. P-T-t modelling of Proterozoic terranes in Lithuania: geo­dynamic implications for accretion of southwestern Fennoscandia. GFF, 125, 201–212.

Skridlaitė, G., Whitehouse, M. & Rimša, A. 2007. Evidence for a pulse of 1.45 Ga anorthosite–mangerite–charnockite–granite (AMCG) plutonism in Lithuania: implications for the Mesoproterozoic evolution of the East European Craton. Terra Nova, 4, 294–301.

Soesoo, A., Puura, V., Kirs, J., Petersell, V., Niin, M. & All, T. 2004. Outlines of the Precambrian basement of Estonia. Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences, Geology, 53, 149–164.

Soesoo, A., Kosler, J. & Kuldkepp, R. 2006. Age and geo­chemical constraints for partial melting of granulites in Estonia. Mineralogy and Petrology, 86, 277–300.

Tikhomirov, S. N. 1965. New rapakivi granite massifs in the Baltic and Leningrad districts. Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, 164, 889–890 [in Russian].

Väisänen, M., Mänttäri, I., Kriegsman, L. M. & Hölttä, P. 2000. Tectonic setting of post-collisional magmatism in the Palaeoproterozoic Svecofennian Orogen, SW Finland. Lithos, 54, 63–81.

Wiszniewska, J. & Baginski, B. 2003. Petrogenesis of Protero­zoic anorogenic granitoids from the Mazury Complex (NE Poland). In Magmas to Mineralisation: The Ishihara Symposium (Blevin, P., Jones, M. & Chappell, B., eds), Geoscience Australia, 2003/14, 145–147.

Wiszniewska, J., Krzeminska, E. & Dörr, V. 2007. Evidence of arc-related Svecofennian magmatic activity in the southwestern margin of the East European Craton in Poland. Gondwana Research, 12(3), 268–278.
Back to Issue