Roundness and surface features of quartz grains in Middle Devonian deposits of the East Baltic and their palaeogeographical implications; pp. 71–84Full article in PDF format | doi:10.3176/earth.2009.1.07
The roundness and surface texture of quartz grains were studied in Devonian sediments of 32 drill cores. Roundness was estimated in more than 800 samples and surface textures were examined under scanning electron microscope on 70 grains. The grains were mostly subrounded to subangular. The concentration of rounded grains in some beds of the Pärnu Formation (Fm.), the basal beds of the Leivu Fm., and the upper part of the investigated sequence indicates zones of sediment recycling and reworking. Based on the distribution of roundness degrees of quartz grains, some possible ancient coastlines in Pärnu time were defined.Variations in quartz surface textures were detected at different stratigraphical levels, whereas the texture created by mechanical processes was predominating. Abundant abrasion features like V-shaped pits, and linear and curved grooves usually give evidence of transport in a fluvial medium. On levels with intensive reworking and redeposition (Burtnieki and Gauja formations and on some levels of the Pärnu Fm.) preliminary relief of grains was smoothed and obliterated. The diagenetic dissolution features were more frequent in the Pärnu Fm., Kernave Fm., and lower part of the Aruküla Fm., where intercalation of dolomitic and siliciclastic rocks is common. Possible chemical etching in Devonian soil profiles was observed in the upper part of the section. Data on the roundness of particles and surface textures of quartz grains, and their horizontal and vertical variability help to clarify the history of basin evolution and to distinguish stratigraphical discontinuites.
Beal, M. A. & Shepard, F. P. 1956. A use of roundness to determine depositional environments. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 26, 49–60.
Blott, J. S. & Pye, K. 2008. Particle shape: a reviev and new methods of characterization and classification. Sedimentology, 55, 31–63.
Burley, S. D. & Worden, R. H. (eds). 2003. Sandstone Diagenesis: Recent and Ancient. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, 649 pp.
Cardona, J. P. M., Mas, J. M. G., Bellon, A. S., Lopez-Aguayo, F. & Caballero, M. A. 1997. Provenance of multicycle quartz arenites of Pliocene age at Arcos, southwestern Spain. Sedimentary Geology, 112, 251–261.
Cherian, A., Chandrasekar, N. & Rajamanickam, V. 2004. Light minerals of beach sediments from Southern Tamilnadu, south east coast of India. Oceanologia, 46, 233–252.
Crook, K. A. W. 1968. Weathering and roundness of quartz sand grains. Sedimentology, 11, 171–182.
Datta, B. 2005. Provenance, tectonics and palaeoclimate of Proterozoic Chandarpur sandstones, Chattisgarh basin: a petrographic view. Journal of Earth System Science, 114, 227–245.
Griffiths, J. C. 1967. The Scientific Method in the Analysis of Sediments. McCraw-Hill, New York, 508 pp.
Jershova, G. I. 1962. Nomenclature and classification of clastic and argillaceous sediments. In Atlas tekstur i struktur osadochnykh gornykh porod [Atlas of textures and structures of sedimentary rock], pp. 8–21. Gosgeoltehizdat, Moscow [in Russian].
Kasper-Zubillaga, J. J., Dickinson, W. W., Carranza-Edwards, A. & Hornelas-Orozco, Y. 2005. Petrography of quartz grains in beach and dune sands of Northland, North Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 48, 649–660.
Kleesment, A. 1995. Lithological characteristics of the uppermost terrigenous Devonian complex in Estonia. Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences, Geology, 44, 221–233.
Kleesment, A. 1997. Devonian sedimentation basin. In Geology and Mineral Resources of Estonia (Raukas, A. & Teedumäe, A., eds), pp. 205–208. Estonian Academy Publishers, Tallinn.
Kleesment, A. E. & Kuršs, V. M. 1977. Distribution of accessory minerals in Lower–Middle Devonian deposits of the East Baltic. In Litologiya i poleznye iskopaemye Paleozojskikh otlozhenij Pribaltiki [Lithology and mineral resources in Palaeozoic rocks of East Baltic] (Kuršs, V. M., ed.), pp. 51–63. Zinatne, Riga [in Russian].
Kleesment, A. & Mark-Kurik, E. 1997. Devonian. Lower Devonian. Middle Devonian. In Geology and Mineral Resources of Estonia (Raukas, A. & Teedumäe, A., eds), pp. 107–121. Estonian Academy Publishers, Tallinn.
Kleesment, A. & Shogenova, A. 2005. Lithology and evolution of Devonian carbonate and carbonate-cemented rocks in Estonia. Proceedings of Estonian Academy of Sciences, Geology, 54, 153–180.
Krumbein, W. C. & Sloss, L. L. 1963. Stratigraphy and Sedimentation. W.H. Freeman and Company, San Fransisco, 660 pp.
Kuršs, V. 1992. Devonskoe terrigennoe osadkonakoplenie na Glavnom Devonskom pole [Devonian terrigenous sedimentation on the Main Devonian Field].Zinatne, Riga, 208 pp. [in Russian].
Kurvits, T., Mahaney, W. C. & Kalm, V. 2000. Grain micromorphology in the Rannamõisa section, Lower Cambrian, Estonia. Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences, Geology, 49, 17–27.
Madhavaraju, J., Lee, Y. II, Armstrong-Altrin, J. S. & Hussain, S. M. 2006. Microtextures on detrital quartz grains of upper Maastrichtian–Danian rocks of the Cauvery Basin, Southeastern India: implications for provenance and depositional environments. Geosciences Journal, 10, 23–34.
Mahaney, W. C. 2002. Atlas of Sand Grain Surface Textures and Applications. Oxford University Press Inc, 238 pp.
Mahaney, W. C. & Kalm, V. 2000. Comparative scanning electron microscopy study of oriented till blocks, glacial grains and Devonian sands in Estonia and Latvia. Boreas, 29, 35–51.
Märss, T., Kleesment, A. & Niit, M. 2008. Karksilepis parva gen. et sp. nov. (Chondrichthyes) from the Burtnieki Regional Stage, Middle Devonian of Estonia. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences, 57, 219–230.
Mazzullo, J. & Magenheimer, S. 1987. The original shapes of quartz sand grains. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 57, 479–487.
Mazzullo, J., Sims, D. & Cunningham, D. 1986. The effects of eolian sorting and abrasion upon the shapes of fine quartz sand grains. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 56, 45–56.
Molnár, B., Fényes, J. & Kuti, L. 1995. Application and comparison of the results of optical and scanning electron microscopic methods for grain-shape examination on Quaternary formations. GeoJournal, 36, 157–168.
Newsome, D. & Ladd, P. 1999. The use of quartz grain microtextures in the study of the origin of sand terrains in Western Australia. CATENA, 35, 1–17.
Oakey, R. J., Green, M., Carling, P. A., Lee, M. W. E., Sear, D. A. & Warburton, J. 2005. Grain-shape analysis – a new method for determining representative particle shapes for populations of natural grains. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 75, 1065–1073.
Okhravi, R. & Amini, A. 2001. Characteristics and provenance of the loess deposits of the Gharatikan watershed on Northeast Iran. Global and Planetary Change, 28, 11–22.
Pandey, S. K., Singh, A. K & Hasnain, S. I. 2002. Grain-size distribution, morphoscopy and elemental chemistry of suspended sediments of Pindari Glacier, Kumaon Himalaya, India. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 47, 213–226.
Pettijohn, F. J. 1975. Sedimentary Rocks. Harper and Raw Publishers, Inc., New York, 628 pp.
Plink-Björklund, P. & Björklund, L. 1999. Sedimentary response in the Baltic Devonian Basin to post-collisional events in the Scandinavian Caledonites. GFF, 121, 79–80.
Ponten, A. & Plink-Björklund, P. 2007. Depositional environments in a tide-influenced delta plain, Middle Devonian, Gauja Formation, Devonian Baltic Basin. Sedimentology, 54, 969–1006.
Pye, K. & Mazzullo, J. 1994. Effects of tropical weathering on quartz grain shape: an example from northeastern Australia. Journal of Sedimentary Research, A64, 500–507.
Shepard, F. P. & Young, R. 1961. Distinguishing between beach and dune sands. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 31, 196–214.
Shine, F. M. 2006. Shape analysis of detrital quartz grains and its environment of deposition of Holocene sediments along the Karotoya River, Bogra, Bangladesh. Journal of Geo-Environment, 6, 54–63.
Tänavsuu-Milkeviciene, K., Plink-Björklund, P. & Kirsimäe, K. 2008. Synsedimentary brecciation in the Eifelian (Middle Devonian) Baltic basin: sudden catastrophe or diagenetic collapse? Terra Nova, 20, 446–454.
Tovmasyan, K., Stinkulis, G. & Plink-Björklund, P. 2008. Depositional environment in the tidally-influencedtransgressive succession, Pärnu Regional Stage, Baltic Devonian basin. In Geografija, geologia, vides zinatne: referatu tezes, pp. 238–239. University of Latvia.
Valiukevičius, J. J., Kleesment, A. E., Kurik, E. J. & Vaitekunene, G. K. 1986. Correlation and organic remains of the deposits of the Narva Stage. In Biofatsij i fauna Silurijskogo i Devonskikh bassejnov Pribaltiki [Biofacies and fauna of East Baltic Silurian and Devonian sedimentation basins] (Brangulis, A. P., ed.), pp. 73–86. Zinatne, Riga [in Russian].
Walderhaug, O., Bjørkum, P. A. & Aase, N. L. 2006. Kaolin-coating in stylolites, effect of quartz cementation and general implications for dissolution at mineral interfaces. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 76, 234–243.
Back to Issue