ESTONIAN ACADEMY
PUBLISHERS
eesti teaduste
akadeemia kirjastus
PUBLISHED
SINCE 1997
 
Acta cover
Acta Historica Tallinnensia
ISSN 1736-7476 (Electronic)
ISSN 1406-2925 (Print)
ESTONIAN INDUSTRIAL WORKERS’ DEMANDS IN THE 1905 REVOLUTION; pp. 3-17
PDF | doi: 10.3176/hist.2008.1.01

Author
Maie PIHLAMÄGI
Abstract
The article deals with the problems of industrial workers in the revolution of 1905, analyses the workers’ economic, social and legal state in the beginning of the 20th century and demands that they presented to authorities and entrepreneurs for improving their quality of life. Also the workers’ achievements on curtailing the working hours, raising the wages, improving the sanitary conditions at workplace and working environment and in providing medical care are being examined.
References

1. See Полное Собрание Законов (ПСЗ) Российской империи. Т. XXIII, 1903. СПб., 1905, Ст. 23060.

2. The Factory Inspectorate was established in 1882 as a legal body to supervise adherence to factory legislation. Factory inspectors’ tasks also included reaching an agreement in arguments between factory owners and workers.

3. Kir’ianov, I. The mentality of the workers of Russia at the turn of the twentieth century. – In: Workers and Intelligentsia in the Late Imperial Russia: Realities, Representations, Reflections. Ed. R. E. Zelnik. University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, Calif., 1999, 81.

4. Ibid., 82.

5. Surh, G. 1905 in St. Petersburg: Labour, Society and Revolution. Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif., 1989, 180, 182.

6. Eesti Ajalooarhiiv (EAA), f 206, n 1, s 372, l 8; Революция 1905–1907 гг. в Эстонии. Сборник документов и материалов. Эстонское Государственное Издательство, Таллин, 1955, 21–22, 25–31.

7. According to the 3 June 1903 accident insurance law, benefits for temporary disability amounted to 1/2 of the wages, invalidity pension in case of total loss of capacity for work amounted to 75% of annual wages. Sickness insurance was not introduced until 1912.

8. Anvelt, J. 1905. aasta revolutsioonilisest liikumisest Eestis. – In: 1905. aasta Eestis. Kirjeldused. Mälestused. Dokumendid. (EKP KK Ajalookomisjoni Toimetised, 1.) Külvaja, Leningrad, 1926, 33.

9. Революция 1905–1907 гг. в Эстонии, 23–24; Karjahärm, T., Pullat, R. Eesti revolutsiooni­tules 1905–1907. Eesti Raamat, Tallinn, 1975, 49.

10. Bellegarde, A. V. Minu mälestusi Eestimaa kubernerina. Eessõna kirjutanud Dr Phil O. Liiv. Loodus, Tartu, 1937, 242, 244.

11. Ibid., 243–244.
12. Революция 1905–1907 гг. в Эстонии, 33.

13. Статистика стачек рабочих на фабриках и заводах за 1905 год. Составил фабричный ревизор В. Е. Варзар. С.-Петербург, 1908, приложения, таблица 1-I, с. 2, 5.

14. Of the 140 million population of Russia, only 14 million were hired workers, of these 3 million were factory workers. Estonia had only 40,000 factory workers out of the total population of 986,000.

15. EAA, f 206, n 1, s 148, l 10; Moosberg, H. 1905.–1907. a revolutsioon Eestis. Eesti Riiklik Kirjastus, Tallinn, 1953, 39.

16. Центральный Государственный Исторический Архив России (ЦГИАР), ф. 23, оп. 20, д. 6, л. 58.

17. Postimees, 1905, Feb. 18.
18. Eesti Riigiarhiivi Filiaal (ERAF), f 27, n 1, s 87, l 86–87.
19. Teataja, 1905, Feb. 23; Uudised, 1905, Feb. 25.
20. EAA, f 206, n 1, s 100, l 1–3.
21. ЦГИАР, ф. 95, оп. 4, д. 830, л. 146.
22. ERAF, f 27, n 1, s 87, l 1; Uudised, 1905, March 16.
23. Революция 1905–1907 гг. в Эстонии, 52; ERAF, f 27, n 1, s 87, l 16.
24. ERAF, f 27, n 1, s 87, l 64–65.
25. EAA, f 206, n 1, s 190, l 137.

26. In February–March 1917, entrepreneurs cut the working day to 8 hours under the pressure of strike movement.

27. Статистические сведения о фабриках и заводах, необложенным акцизом за 1900 год. СПб., 1903.

28. Кирьянов Ю. И. Жизненный уровень рабочих России (конец XIX–начало XX в.). Наука, Москва, 1979, 104.

29. Свод отчётов фабричных инспекторов за 1904 год. СПб., 1907, 172–173.

30. Свод отчётов фабричных инспекторов за 1906 год. СПб., 1907, 93; Свод отчётов фабричных инспекторов за 1908 год. СПб., 1910, 143.

31. ПСЗ. Т. XXIII, 1903, Ст. 23122.

32. Lenin, V. I. Reformide ajastu. – In: Teosed, 6. Jaanuar 1902–august 1903. Eesti Riiklik Kirjastus, Tallinn, 1952, 467.

33. ГИАР, ф. 23, оп. 24, д. 1224, л. 231.
34. ЦГИАР, ф. 23, оп. 24, д. 1224, л. 231–237; EAA, f 208, n 1, s 6, l 1.

35. See Городское хозяйство Ревеля 1905–1915. Ревель, 1916, часть III, 20. City governments of Riga and Helsinki opened labour exchanges for registration of job-seekers and vacancies in 1903.

36. ЦГИАР, ф. 23, оп. 24, д. 1224, л. 279.

37. EAA, f 206, n 1, s 290, l 22–28; Latvijas Valsts Vēstures Arhīvs, 104. f., 1. apr., 117. l., 72. lp.

38. EAA, f 206, n 1, s 290, l 19–21.
39. EAA, f 206, n 1, s 290, l 30, 32, 34, 35, 37.
40. EAA, f 206, n 1, s 164, l 17; s 157, l 36.
41. Законодательные акты переходнаго времени. 1904–1906 гг. СПб., 1907, 420–438.

42. Cliff, T., Gluckstein, D. Marxism and the Trade Union Struggle: Trade Unions in Russia and Britain, 31. http//www.internationalsocialist.or/pdfs/Marxism_TradeUnions.pdf

43. EAA, f 1615, n 2, s 1, l 4.
44. ЦГИАР, ф. 23, оп. 29, д. 43, л. 71, 118, 136–137, 146–147, 182.
45. Olevik, 1910, Dec. 22.
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