ESTONIAN ACADEMY
PUBLISHERS
eesti teaduste
akadeemia kirjastus
PUBLISHED
SINCE 1997
 
Acta cover
Acta Historica Tallinnensia
ISSN 1736-7476 (Electronic)
ISSN 1406-2925 (Print)
ESTIMATION OF SECURITY THREATS AND ESTONIAN DEFENCE PLANNING IN THE 1930s; pp. 35–74
PDF | doi: 10.3176/hist.2008.1.03

Author
Urmas SALO
Abstract
This article aims to give an overview of the Estonian military planning in the 1930s and analyze the compatibility of the defence plans with the reality of the time. The influence of military-political relations on the defence planning is also examined. The author tries to find out how the Estonian General Staff foresaw possible military conflicts and who was considered the most plausible enemy. The article provides an overview of the principles of Estonian national defence, the main ideas of the defence plan, general structure of the Defence Forces, mobilization plan and border cover plans. The topic of military cooperation with other states, especially Latvia, Finland and Germany has also been addressed. Changes in strategic situation and military planning in 1939 have been studied separately. For the estimation of the Estonian military planning, comparisons with Latvian and Lithuanian defence and mobilization plans are made. 
References

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7. The General Staff of the Estonian Armed (Defence) Forces in 1929–1937 was officially named the Defence Forces Staff, 1937–1940 the Armed Forces Staff.

8. Estonian coastal artillery (batteries), named the Naval Fortresses.

9. Stocks of Eesti Riigiarhiiv (ERA): 495 Armed Forces Staff, 496 General Staff, 521 Staff of the 3rd Division, 673 Staff of the Harju Military District, 526 Staff of the Air-Defence, 527 Staff of the Navy, 642 Staff of the Naval Fortresses.

10. Stocks of ERA: 988 State Defence Council, 2553 Johan Laidoner’s personal collection. Johan Laidoner (1884–1953), General, 1918–1920, 1924–1925 and 1934–1940 Commander-in-Chief of the Estonian Armed (Defence) Forces, in 1940 deported to Russia, in 1941 arrested by the Soviets, in 1953 died in the prison.

11. An overview of the Estonian Armed Forces (1937). – Latvijas Valsts Vēstures Arhivs (LVVA), 1474-1-1635.

12. Reports of Polish military attache in Archiwum Akt Nowych in Warszaw – AAN. Sztab Glowny, 616; Aart Nõmm made use of reports of Swedish military attache in his BA thesis at the University of Tartu, see Nõmm, A. Nõukogude Liidu sõjalised ettevalmistused Eesti vallu­tamiseks 1939. aastal. BA thesis. Manuscript in University of Tartu. Tartu, 2007.

13. Luts, A. Heitluste keerises, I–II. Olion, Tallinn, 2004. Alfred Luts (1899–1991), Lieutenant Colonel, from 1934 officer of the Estonian General Staff, 1939–1940 Chief of the I (Operational) Department, in 1941 deserted from the Soviet Army, after WW II lived in the West.

14.Roots, H. Kui võitluseta murdus mõõk. Toronto, 1993. Harald Roots (1905–1986), Major, 1934–1940 officer of the I (Operational) Department of the Estonian General Staff, in 1941 arrested by the Soviets, up to 1949 in a prison camp.

15. See Interrogation protocols of Nikolai Reek. Eesti Riigiarhiivi Filiaal (ERAF), 130-9861; President ja sõjavägede ülemjuhataja NKVD ees. Tõlkinud ja kommenteerinud M. Ilmjärv. (Eesti Teaduste Akadeemia Ajaloo Instituut. Töid ajaloo alalt, 1.) Tallinn, 1993.

16. Situation in Estonia’s defence, 1926. ERA, 496-4-228, 68–83; Short memorandum about situation in the state defence, 4.10.1929. ERA, 495-12-328, 10–17; Defence plan of the Republic, Section IV. Enemy forces and presumed activity. ERA, 495-12-308, 1–12; Defence plan of the 1st Division Defence District. Approved 10.05.1930. ERA, 495-12-56, 2–6; Minutes of State Defence Council No 1, 12.06.1933. ERA, 988-1-2, 2–9.

17. 1941 god. Dokumenty. I kn. Ed. V. Naumov. Demokratija, Moskva, 1998, 557–571; Meltjuhov, M. Upuščennyj šans Stalina. Sovetskij Sojuz i borba za Evropu 1939–1941 gg. Veče, Moskva, 2002, 147.

18. Situation in Estonia’s defence. ERA, 496-4-228, 80–81.

19. Minutes of State Defence Council No 1, 12.06.1933. ERA, 988-1-2, 4–7; Report of state defence activity 1934–1939. ERA, 2553-1-12, 2, 34–35.

20. Ken, O. Mobilizacionnoe planirovanie i političeskie rešenija konec 1920–seredina 1930-h gg. Izdatelstvo Evropejskogo universiteta, Sankt-Peterburg, 2002, 266, 338–339.

21. Report of state defence activity 1934–1939. ERA, 2553-1-12, 35, 38–39; Minutes of State Defence Council 22.10.1936. ERA, 988-1-3, 45; Note on the Estonian ambassadors in England Schmidt’s memorandum. ERA, 495-12-264, 91–92.

22. Tannberg, T. Nõukogude Liidu ettevalmistused sõjaks. – In: Sõja ja rahu vahel, I. Eesti julge­oleku­poliitika 1940. aastani. Toim E. Tarvel, T. Tannberg. S-Keskus, Tallinn, 2004, 295–297, 301–304; Nevežin, V. “Jesli zavtra v pohod…”. Podgotovka vojne i ideologičeskaja propaganda v 30-h–40-h godah. Jauza, EKSMO, Moskva, 2007, 89–92, 106–114, 135, 158–159; Ken, O. Mobilizacionnoe planirovanie, 338–340; Musial, B. Wir werden den ganzen Kapitalismus am Kragen packen. – Zeitschrift für Geschichtswissenschaft, 2006, 1, 45, 52–53, 57, 60–61; Sokolov, B. Krasnyj koloss. Počemu pobedila Krasnaja Armija? (Velikaja Otečestvennaja: Neizvestnaja vojna.) Jauza, EKSMO, Moskva, 2007, 21–31.

23. Šubin, A. V. Mir na kraju bezdnõ. Ot global’nogo krizisa k mirovoj vojne. 1929–1941 godõ. Veče, Moskva, 2004, 390; Rodin, V. Černo-belaja istorija. – Vesti nedeli, November 5, 2004, 17.

24. Latvian ambassadors Liepiņš report to Munters. LVVA, 2574-3-3103, 14, 20–21; Minakov, S. Voennaja elita 20–30-h godov XX veka. Russkoe slovo, Moskva, 2004, 426–432, 436–437; Maasing, R. Eesti ja N. Liidu sõjaväeliste delegatsioonide läbirääkimisi 1939. a. oktoobris. – In: Eesti riik ja rahvas II maailmasõjas, II. Toim R. Maasing, E. Blumfeldt, H. Kauri. Kirjastus EMP, Stockholm, 1955, 44; international background of visits see Ilmjärv, M. Hääletu alis­tumine, 412–416.

25. Kantor, J. Vojna i mir Mihaila Tuhatševskogo. Ogonek, Vremja, Moskva, 2005, 517, 521–524, 551.

26. Åselius, G. The rise and fall of the Soviet Navy in the Baltic, 1921–1941. (Cass Series: Naval policy and history, 29.) Frank Cass, London, 2005, 157–158, 175–176, 194; ŠirokoradA. B. Flot, kotoryj uničtožil Hruštšev. VZOI, Moskva, 2004, 52–55; DrogovozI. Bol’šoj flot Strany Sovetov. (Voenno-istoričeskaja biblioteka.) Harvest, Minsk, 2003, 36–42, 45–48. All in all, the ship-building programme contained at first 676 ships, among them 24 battleships and 20 cruisers, about 1/3 of them for the Baltic Fleet. Subsequently, the unrealistic programme was curtailed and was never completed when the war broke out.

27. Åselius, G. The rise and fall of the Soviet Navy in the Baltic, 158.

28. Tannberg, T. Nõukogude Liidu ettevalmistused sõjaks, 311–314, 318–322, 490–500; 1941 god, I, 557–571; Petrov, P. Baltijskij flot. Finski gambit. Jauza, EKSMO, Moskva, 2005, 78–88, 101–104, 327–330.

29. Leskinen, J. Vendade riigisaladus, 272–279, 284–286.

30. Report of state defence activity 1934–1939. ERA, 2553-1-12, 37; Roots, H. Kui võitluseta murdus mõõk, 60–73.

31. Nikolai Reek (1890–1942), Lieutenant General, 1925–1926 and 1934–1939 Chief of the Estonian General Staff, 1927–1928 and 1939–1940 Minister of War, in 1941 arrested by the Soviets, in 1942 executed in the prison camp.

32. Minutes of State Defence Council No 15, 16.02.1935. ERA, 988-1-3, 8–9.

33. Memorandum of the British military attaché Firebrace, 18.12.1934. PRO FO 371/18231, 436.

34. Ilmjärv, M. Hääletu alistumine, 308–314; Stoker, D. J. Britain, France and the Naval Arms Trade in the Baltic 1919–1939: Grand Strategy and Failure. (Cass Series. Naval Policy and History, 18.) Frank Cass, London, 2003, 183–186.

35. A information survey of the Ministry of foreign affairs (MFA) to Estonian foreign repre­sentations from November, 27.11.1936. ERA, 957-14-325, 24; Latvian ambassador Krievinš’s report to Munters, 14.12.1936. LVVA, 2574-3-3116, 63–64; Maasing, R. Eesti ja N. Liidu sõja­väe­liste delegatsioonide läbirääkimisi, 44–45; Ilmjärv, M. Hääletu alistumine, 369–378; Arumäe, H. President Päts Saksa saadiku hinnanguis 1939–1940. – Akadeemia, 2000, 12, 2543–2544; Noormets, T. Eesti sõjaväeluure tegevusest, meetoditest ja vahenditest aastail 1920–1940. – In: Luuramisi. Salateenistuste tegevusest Eestis XX sajandil. Koost T. Noormets. Kistler-Ritso Siht­asutus, Tallinn, 1999, 58–60.

36. German ambassador Frohwein’s report to MFA, 19.11.1938. – In: Akten zur Deutschen Auswärtigen Politik 1918–1945. Serie D. Bd. V (Juni 1937–März 1939). Baden-Baden, 1953, 383–384; Ilmjärv, M. Hääletu alistumine, 468–469, 504–505; Myllyniemi, S. Die baltische Krise 1938–1941. (Schriftenreihe der Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte, 38.) Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart, 1979, 33–36.

37. Ahmann, R. Nazi Germany policy towards the Baltic States on the eve of the Second World War. – In: The Baltic and the Outbreak of the Second World War. Eds J. Hiden, T. Lane. Cambridge University Press, 1992, 52–53, 65–66; Ilmjärv, M. Hääletu alistumine, 388–389, 476.

38. Short military-geographic overview of territories of the Latvian and Lithuanian Republics (1937). ERA, 495-12-284, 22–70; see also Ilmjärv, M. Hääletu alistumine, 442.

39. Chief of the General Staff of the Letter to the 2nd and 3rd Division commanders, 18.05.1937. ERA, 521-1-400, 2; Leskinen, J. Vaiettu Suomen silta, 70.

40. Work plan of the I Department of General Staff for 1938. ERA, 495-12-464, 38–39; Seene, A. Kas illusioonidiplomaatia? Eesti Vabariigi neutraliteedipoliitika ja selle rahvusvaheline taust 1918–1940. MA thesis. Manuscript in University of Tartu. Tartu, 2001, 160; Roots, H. Kui võit­luseta murdus mõõk, 76, 79–82.

41. Report of Polish military attache in Tallinn Szczekowski from IV quarter of 1937, 5.01.1938. AAN, Sztab Glowny, 616-271, 364–365; Szczekowski’s report from II and III quarter of 1938, 20.10.1938. AAN, 616-326, 283; Seene, A. Kas illusioonidiplomaatia?, 158–162; Ilmjärv, M. Hääletu alistumine, 369, 376–378, 387, 430–431, 442–446; Arumäe, H. President Päts Saksa saadiku hinnanguis 1939–1940, 2544–2545.

42. Szczekowski’s report from III quarter of 1937, 10.10.1937. AAN, 616-271, 280–283; Szczekowski’s report from I quarter of 1938, 25.04.1938 and report from II and III quarter of 1938, 20.10.1938. AAN, 616-326, 191–192, 282–286; Leczyk, M. Polska i sąsiedzi. Stosunki wojskowe 1921–1939. Comandor, Warszawa, 2004, 409–415; see also Pajur, A. Sõjalised välissuhted ja koostöö välis­riikidega, 188–192; Leskinen, J. Vendade riigisaladus, 235–270; Pullat, R. Versailles’st Wester­platteni. Eesti ja Poola suhted kahe maailmasõja vahel. Estopol, Tallinn, 2001, 118–173.

43. Szczekowski’s report from period 1.I–1.V 1939, 10.05.1939. AAN, 616-326, 325–326.

44. Polish ambassador’s report to the minister of foreign affairs, 25.05.1939. AAN, 616-356, 223. Selter expressed similar views also to the Latvian ambassador, see Ilmjärv, M. Hääletu alistu­mine, 531.

45.Ant, J. Eesti 1939–1941: rahvast, valitsemisest, saatusest. Tallinn, 1999, 34–36. Only the inhabitants of Tallinn and Tartu considered Russia and Germany equally dangerous.

46. Minutes of the Joint Economic Board of the State Council and the Committee for External and State Defence of the State Council 11.11.1938. ERA, 84-1-1539, 3–5, 8–9; Protocol of agree­ment (25.05.1938) and German ambassador Frohwein’s and Estonian minister of foreign affairs Selter’s notes for approving the protocol, 22.06.1938. ERA, 957-14-497, 37–39, 45–46, 48–50; Salo, U. Riigikaitse Nõukogu roll Eesti riigikaitse uuendamisel 1933–1939. – Tuna, 2007, 3, 40–41. According to an agreement concluded with German Reichsgruppe Industrie A.G.K. (approved 22.06.1938) it was planned to order military supplies from Germany up to 9 mil. RM. 50% of the purchase sum calculated by Estonian-German clearing, 15% in English pounds and 35% in Estonian oil-shale export.

47. Admiral Wilhelm Canaris had an important role in formation of Estonian-German cooperation, see: Estonian military attaché Jakobsen’s letter to Chief of II Department of the General Staff (GS), 6.05.1939. ERA, 495-12-229, 233.

48.Noormets, T. Eesti sõjaväeluure tegevusest, 61–64.

49. Defence plan of the 1st Division Defence District. Approved 10.05.1930. ERA, 495-12-56, 1; Lahingueeskiri. Tallinn, 1932, 1–2.

50. Report of state defence activity 1934–1939. ERA, 2553-1-12, 36–37; Diary of Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces 1934–1938, 13.04.1935, 18.11.1936. ERA, 2553-1-2, 45, 137; Minutes of State Defence Council 22.10.1936. ERA, 988-1-3, 42; Modernization plan of the state defence, 14.12.1937. ERA, 495-12-85, 4.

51. Diary of Commander-in-Chief 1934–1938, 14.10.1938. ERA, 2553-1-2, 204; Roots, H. Kui võit­­luseta murdus mõõk, 36–37.

52. Defence plan of the Estonian Republic against Russia (January 1925). ERA, 496-4-151, 12–13.

53. Luts, A. Heitluste keerises, 25, 29; Roots, H. Kui võitluseta murdus mõõk, 36–37.

54. Report of state defence activity 1934–1939. ERA, 2553-1-12, 37; Letter of the Chief of the General Staff to the 2nd and 3rd Division commanders, 18.05.1937. ERA, 521-1-400, 2; Roots, H. Kui võitluseta murdus mõõk, 76, 79–82; Leskinen, J. Vaiettu Suomen silta, 68–70.

55. Andersons, E. Latvijas brunotie spēki un to priekšvēsture. Daugavas Vanagu Apgāds, Toronto, 1983, 651–657; Luts, A. Heitluste keerises, 19–21; Roots, H. Kui võitluseta murdus mõõk, 42–43, 118–119; Raštikis, S. Kovose dēl Lietuvos. Kario atsiminimai. I dalis. Lituanus, Vilnius, 1990, 455–456; Pajur, A. Sõjalised välissuhted ja koostöö välisriikidega, 188–189; Arumäe, H. Ühist ja erinevat Eesti ja Läti välispoliitikas esimesel iseseisvusperioodil. – In: Eestlased Lätis, I. Peatoimetaja L. Utno. Välis-Eesti, Tallinn, 2007, 230–238.

56. Kuzmins, V. Latvijas brunoto spēku aizsardzības plāni. 1939. g. rudens – 1940. g. vasara. MA thesis. Manuscript in University of Latvia. Rīga, 2002, 27, 44–45, 48, 50–51, 104, 113–116; Andersons, E. Latvijas brunotie spēki un to priekšvēsture, 605–610, 651; Pētersons, A. Krustugunīs. Latviešu karotmāka 1940–1945. 60 gadus no tautas slēptais. Rīga, 2007, 84–87; Nõmm, A. Nõukogude Liidu sõjalised ettevalmistused, 50–51. According to Kuzmins, Latvia regarded Germany as its only real enemy from the summer 1938 up to the autumn 1939.

57. Luts, A. Heitluste keerises, 24, 28–29; Roots, H. Kui võitluseta murdus mõõk, 39–41, 48; Nõmm, A. Nõukogude Liidu sõjalised ettevalmistused, 52–53.

58. Kirotar, E. Eesti välisministeeriumis. – In: Eesti riik ja rahvas II maailmasõjas, II. Toim
R. Maasing,
E. Blumfeldt, H. Kauri. Kirjastus EMP, Stockholm, 1955, 81; Ahmann, R. Nazi Germany policy towards the Baltic states, 52, 54–55, 65; Ilmjärv, M. Hääletu alistumine, 504, 506, 509; Arumäe, H. Ühist ja erinevat Eesti ja Läti välispoliitikas, 236–238; Myllyniemi, S. Die baltische Krise 1938–1941, 35–36, 39.

59. Vaičenonis, J. Lietuvos kariuomenes modernizacija. – Darbai ir Dienos, 2000, 21, 162, 165; Vaičenonis, J. Defence problems in the Lithuanian Republic in 1934–1939. (Latvijas Kara Muzeja Gadagrāmata, VII.) Rīga, 2006, 157–158.

60. Directives for border covering to II Division and units in Suvalkija, 1935–1939. Lietuvos Centrinis Valstybes Archyvas (LCVA), 929-3-931, 5–6, 10–11, 14–15, 19, 31, 40, 75.

61. Shaulių Sąjunga – Shooter’s Union, Lithuanian voluntary defence organization.

62. Vaičenonis, J. Lietuvos Šaulių sąjunga Valstybės gynyboje 1935–1940 metais. – In: Lietuvos Šaulių sąjungos istorijos fragmentai. Konferencijos pranešimų medžiaga. Detali, Kaunas, 2002, 113.

63. Juutilainen, A. 1930. aastate kaitseplaanid. – In: Talvesõda 1939–1940. 105 päeva Soome rahva kangelaslikku võitlust. Koost J. Leskinen, A. Juutilainen. Varrak, Tallinn, 2002, 63–66; Talvisodan historia, 1. Suomi joutuu Talvisotaan. WSOY, Porvoo, 1977, 79–85. VK – Venäjän keskitys

64. Tuliszka, J. Westerplatte 1926–1939. Dzieje Wojskowej Składnicy Tranzytowej w Wolnym Mieście Gdańsku. Adam Marszałek, Toruń, 2002, 94–97; Kirchmayer, J. 1939 i 1944. Kilka zagadnień polskich. Ksiażka i Wiedza, Warszawa, 1959, 57–70.

65. Report of state defence activity 1934–1939. ERA, 2553-1-12, 94–95; Minutes of State Defence Council 16.02.1935 and 22.10.1936. ERA, 988-1-3, 15, 51–52.

66. Minutes of State Defence Council 22.10.1936. ERA, 988-1-3, 52–54; Riigi Teataja (RT) 1937, No 15, 237, 247, 251–252.

67. In 1932 there were c. 32,000 call-up reservists registered in Estonia, 25,000 of them were planned to be called into service. The War Minister could call them up in case of the risk of war for manning the covering units.

68. Minutes of the State Defence Council 22.10.1936. ERA, 988-1-3, 55; 642-1-319, 64–67; RT 1937, No 15, 248.

69. The Defence League (Kaitseliit), Estonia’s voluntary defence organization 1918–1940 and from 1990, approximately 42,600 members in 1939.

70. Report of state defence activity 1934–1939. ERA, 2553-1-12, 95; Chief of V Department of the General Staff to Chief of I Department of the GS, 31.03.1932; Report of Head of the Tartu County Unit, 15.06.1932; Orders of the Chief of the Defence League, 22.06.1932. ERA, 495-12-380, II, 24, 53–61; Correspondence between the Main Staff of the Defence League and General Staff, 1936; Plan of formation and armament of artillery units of the Defence League, 15.01.1937. ERA, 495-12-433, 10–15, 28–37; Punga, O. Suurtükiväeüksused Kaitseliidus. – Kaitse Kodu, 1998, II, 42–44.

71. Mobilization plan No 2. ERA, 495-12-479, 5; Appendix of the Mobilization plan No 2. ERA, 495-12-417, 103, 112, 114–115.

72. The Chief of the Petseri Defence District to the Chief of the V Department of the GS, 6.05.1932. ERA, 495-12-366, II, 174; Rahvastikuprobleeme Eestis. II rahvaloenduse tulemusi. Vihik IV. Tallinn, 1937, 24.

73. Appendix No 8 of the Defence plan of the Republic. Railway transportation of forces for deployment, 20.12.1928. ERA, 495-12-308, 24–31.

74. A letter of construction to the enactment of organization and establishments of the Defence Forces. ERA, 496-4-420, 28; Guidelines of cadre units organization and establishment (1928). ERA, 496-4-424, 103–105; Plan for modification of the Armed Forces peace-time organization, 1938. ERA, 495-12-468, 2; Development of organization of the Defence Forces after War of Independence (1933). ERA, 1131-1-22, 16.

75. War-time establishments of the units of the Armed Forces. ERA, 495-12-332, 84–91; Short memorandum about today’s situation in the state defence, 1929. ERA, 495-12-328, 9.

76. Personnel strength of the Armed Forces 1.09.1939. ERA, 495-12-482, 62–63.

77. War-time strength of the Armed Forces, 1939. ERA, 498-13-710, 147.

78. Mobilization division No 4, 1937. LVVA, 1474-1-3190, 6–9.

79. In time of 3 years after conscription service reservists were in class of high readiness reserve and named servicemen on leave until further order.

80. LVVA, 1474-1-3190, 6–9; Vakkur, E. War-time organization and combat doctrine of the Latvian Armed Forces. ERA, 495-12-824, 19–25; Kuzmins, V. Latvijas brunoto spēku aizsardzības plāni, 47–48.

81. Vakkur, E. War-time organization and combat doctrine. ERA, 495-12-824, 19–25.

82. Ibid., 25;        Kuzmins, V. Latvijas brunoto spēku aizsardzības plāni, 49.

83. LCVA, 929-3-848, 5–23, 108–116; Raštikis, S. Kovose dēl Lietuvos, I, 325–327, 530; Vaičenonis, J. Lietuvos kariuomenės modernizacija, 161; Rezmer, W. Litewskie lotnictwo wojskowe 1919–1940. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Mikołaja Kopernika, Toruń, 1999, 41–42, 45.

84. Overview of mobilization in September 1939. LCVA, 929-5-547, 1–2, 4, 6, 20–21.

85. Directives for border covering to II Division and units in Suvalkija, 1935–39. LCVA, 929-3-931, 10–11, 14–15, 19, 31, 40, 75; Rezmer, W. Litewskie lotnictwo wojskowe, 42; Vaičenonis, J. Lietuvos Šaulių sąjunga Valstybės gynyboje 1935–1940 metais, 113–115.

86. Excerpts: for Harju Military District ERA, 521-2-82a; for Air Defence ERA, 526-1-38, 38–62; for Navy ERA, 527-1-1618, 58–81.

87. H. Roots has related the southern variant to the danger from Germany. See Roots, H. Kui võitluseta murdus mõõk, 37.

88. Appendix to the Mobilization plan No 2. Time-table of readiness of the military units, 13.05.1936. ERA, 495-12-417, 59–64.

89.A letter of the Inspector of Engineers to Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, 11.07.1939, Summary of reconnaissance 29.07.1939, An amendment of the Chief of the 1st Department of the General Staff about the supplementary reconnaissance results of the 2nd Division’s border fortification work, A report of the Inspector of Engineers to Commander-in-Chief, 11.08.1939. ERA,512-1-333, 468–470, 498, 659–660, 693–708; Nõmm, T. Eesti piirikindlustused. – Tehnika ja Tootmine, 1992, 9, 43–46.

90. In 1937 Trankmann sold the materials on border fortifications to Soviet intelligence. See Kuuli, O. Luurajad – poliitvangid? – In: Luuramisi. Salateenistuste tegevusest Eestis XX sajandil. Koost T. Noormets. Kistler-Ritso Sihtasutus, Tallinn, 1999, 98–99; Roots, H. Kui võitluseta murdus mõõk, 56–58.

91. The Estonian Air Force squadrons were named divisions.

92. Personnel strength of the Armed Forces 1.09.1939. ERA, 495-12-482, 59p–60o; Plan of reorganization of the Defence Forces in transition to one-year service, 1.07.1927. ERA, 496-4-408, 20; Development of organization of the Defence Forces after War of Independence (1933). ERA, 1131-1-22, 23.

93. Strength of the Border Guard, 15.12.1939. ERA, 510-1-125, 5–11; Appendix of the Mobilizationplan No 2. Formation of the military units, 20.06.1936. ERA, 495-12-417, 143.

94. A report of the Inspector of Engineers to Commander-in-Chief, 11.07.1939. ERA, 512-1-333, 469–470; 1st Division Commander’s letter to Chief of the General Staff, 28.07.1939. ERA, 512-1-333, 542–544, 551; Nõmm, T. Eesti piirikindlustused, 43–46.

95. An overview of the Estonian Armed Forces, 1.07.1937. LVVA, 1474-1-1635, 106–109; Protocol on the discussion of the war game in the Narva Defence District 7.–9.05.1934. ERA, 515-1-761, 39–41.

96. Operational and tactical evaluation of terrain of the 1st Division (Narva) Front (material of field trip, 1939). ERA, 515-1-825, 175–176; Report of state defence activity 1934–1939. ERA, 2553-1-12, 36–37.

97. Plan of communication of 2nd Division for border covering (1939). ERA, 495-12-880, 68–72.

98. An overview of the Estonian Armed Forces, 1.07.1937. LVVA, 1474-1-1635, 109–111; Act of fixation of defence positions of the 2nd Division border fortifications, 9.05.1939. ERA, 512-1-333, 655; Report of the Inspector of Engineers to Commander-in-Chief, 11.08.1939. ERA, 512-1-333, 693.

99. Evaluation of 3rd Division border covering situation 24.05.1939, Chief of 3rd Division to Commander-in-Chief 2.06.1939. ERA, 521-1-453, 93–94, 110–111; Excerpt of the 3rd Division’s border covering plan for the Harju Military District (1.09.1939). ERA, 521-2-82a, 4–5, 8; Border covering plan of the 3rd Division, 1939. ERA, 521-2-90, 1–22.

100. Operational evaluation of terrain near Estonian-Latvian border in 3rd Division Defence District. ERA, 521-1-400, 147–149.

101. Covering plan of the Air Defence units (1.09.1939). ERA, 526-1-38, 20–37; Letter of the Chief of the Air Defence to Commander-in-Chief, 1.06.1939. ERA, 526-1-37, 69–70.

102. In 1939 the Estonian Air Force had 4 fighters, 12 reconnaissance and ground support, 22 training and signal aircraft, mainly old models.

103. Border covering plan of the Navy (3.06.1939). ERA, 527-1-1618, 17–38. In 1939 the Estonian Navy had 2 submarines, one torpedo boat, 4 gunboats, 2 minelayers and 2 minesweepers.

104. ERA, 527-1-1618, 21–25, 29; Mobilization covering plan of the Naval Fortresses 25.04.1939. ERA, 642-1-309, 2–10.

105. The Island of Aegna – Wulf; the Island of Naissaar – Nargen, the Suurupi Peninsula.

106. Note to Estonian government by the Soviet government 28.03.1939. – In: Molotovi-Ribbentropi paktist baaside lepinguni. Dokumente ja materjale. Toim H. Arumäe. Perioodika, Tallinn, 1989, 16–17; Arumäe, H. Poliitilised sündmused Euroopas 1939. – In: Sõja ja rahu vahel, I. Eesti julgeolekupoliitika 1940. aastani. Toim E. Tarvel, T. Tannberg. S-Keskus, Tallinn, 2004, 96–98; Medijainen, E. 1939: võimalused ja valikud, I. – Ajalooline Ajakiri, 2000, 1, 29–44; Medijainen, E. 1939: võimalused ja valikud, II. – Ajalooline Ajakiri, 2000, 2, 51–54.

107. Szczekowski’s report to Chief of II Department of Polish GS, 12.04.1939. AAN. Sztab Glówny, 616-356, 204–205; Päevaleht, April 13, 1939; Luts, A. Heitluste keerises, 64.

108. Petrov, P. Baltijskij flot. Finski gambit, 121–134; Solonin, M. 25 ijunja. Glupost’ ili agressija? (Velikaja Otečestvennaja: Neizvestnaja vojna.) Jauza, EKSMO, Moskva, 2008, 74; Leskinen, J. Vendade riigisaladus, 279–282.

109. Petrov, P. Baltijskij flot. Finski gambit, 332–334.

110. Counsellor Pallo to MFA, 21.07.1939. ERA, 957-14-701, 58–59; Velikaja Otečestvennaja vojna 1941–1945, 1. Surovye ispytanija. Nauka, Moskva, 1998, 35.

111. Salo, U. Eesti kaitseväe valmisolek sõjaks ja vastupanuvõimalused 1939. aastal, 80–82, 195–197.

112. Arumäe, H. Poliitilised sündmused Euroopas 1939, 102–106; Medijainen, E. 1939: võimalu­sed ja valikud, II, 49–58, 61–62, 66–68, 99; Åselius, G. The rise and fall of the Soviet Navy in the Baltic, 163–164.

113. Ahmann, R. Nazi Germany policy towards the Baltic states, 58–59; see also Laretei, H. Kirde-Euroopa sõja puhkemisel. – In: Eesti riik ja rahvas II maailmasõjas, II. Toim R. Maasing, E. Blumfeldt, H. Kauri. Kirjastus EMP, Stockholm, 1955, 36–37.

114. See materials for Finnish-Estonian staff exercise 26.02.193: Leskinen, J. Vendade riigi­saladus, 241–242.

115. Hitler’s directive for preparing armed forces for war 11.04.1939; German Navy Commander’s directive 16.05.1939. – In: Dašitšev, V. I. Strategija Gitlera. Put’ k katastrofe 1933–1945. Istoričeskie očerki, dokumenty I materialy, 2. Nauka, Moskva, 34–39, 53, 58–60; Ahmann, R. Nazi Germany policy towards the Baltic states, 59.

116. Kershaw, I. Hitler, 2. 1936–1945: karistus. Varrak, Tallinn, 2008, 172–174, 198–201.

117. See Ahmann, R. Nazi Germany policy towards the Baltic states, 51–52, 59–64, 66–69;Ilmjärv, M. Hääletu alistumine, 534–535, 550–560.

118. Ahmann, R. Nazi Germany policy towards the Baltic states, 69–70; Rauch, G. v. Halders Besuch in Estland Juni 1939. – In: Reval und die Baltischen Länder. Hrsg. von J. v. Hehn, C. J. Kenéz. J. G. Herder-Institut, Marburg, 1980, 181–193; Ilmjärv, M. Hääletu alis­tu­mine, 504, 542, 550–551; Myllyniemi, S. Die baltische Krise 1938–1941, 48–49.

119. Szczekowski report from period 1.I–1.V 1939, 10.05.1939. AAN, Sztab Glówny, 616-326, 324–325.

120. Szczekowski report to Chief of II Department of Polish GS 02.04.1939. AAN, Sztab Glówny, 616-356, 191–193; Report of the Polish ambassador in Tallinn Przesmycki 20.05.1939. AAN, 616-356, 217.

121. See Arumäe, H. Baasidelepingu eelmäng. – Tuna, 2001, 4, 23–31; 2002, 1, 37–49; Tannberg, T. Nõukogude Liidu ettevalmistused sõjaks, 321–322.

122. Overview about 3rd Division’s war game on 1939, 15.07.1939. ERA, 673-1-702, 178–196; ERA, 531-1-19, 11–15.

123. Szczekowski report from period 1.I–1.V 1939, 10.05.1939. AAN, Sztab Glówny, 616-326, 335; Report of Latvian military attache Veckalninš to Chief of Information Department of the Latvian GS, 13.07.1939. LVVA, 1469-1-2689, 10; Nõmm, A. Nõukogude Liidu sõjalised ette­valmistused, 33–34.

124. Summary about Commander-in-Chief’s visit to Saaremaa 19.–21.07.1939. ERA, 531-1-19, 11–15.

125. According to the agreement of bases the Soviet Union obtained the right for 10 years to set up naval bases and airports on West-Estonian islands and Paldiski. To protect the basis up to 25,000 servicemen of land forces and air forces could be stationed for the time of war in Estonia. Temporarily (until 2 years) the Soviet Baltic Sea Fleet could use the port of Tallinn.
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