ESTONIAN ACADEMY
PUBLISHERS
eesti teaduste
akadeemia kirjastus
PUBLISHED
SINCE 1997
 
Acta cover
Acta Historica Tallinnensia
ISSN 1736-7476 (Electronic)
ISSN 1406-2925 (Print)

EESTI ÕIGEUSU KOGUDUSTE LIKVIDEERIMINE NIKITA HRUŠTŠOVI AJAL AASTAIL 1954–1964; 115–130

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Author
Andrei Sõtšov

Abstract
Annotatsioon.

Aastad 1954–1964 olid Eesti õigeusu piiskopkonnas oluliste muudatuste ajaks. N. Hruštšovi võimuleasumine tähendas pööret NSV Liidu sise- ja välispoliitikas, aga samuti kirikute ning kogu­duste elus. Ametlik, uus religioonipoliitika põhjustas koguduste massilise sulgemise.

N. Hruštšovi ajal teostatud religioonipoliitikas võib eristada leebemat ja karmimat perioodi. Aastail 1954–1959 suhtuti usuasjadesse liberaalsemalt ja rahumeelsemalt. Likvideerimised kuju­nesid peamiselt varem tegevuse lõpetanud koguduste olukorra vormistamiseks. Sulgemisprotsess kulges valdavalt rahumeelselt.

Aastaid 1960–1964 iseloomustab sihipärane vägivald ja koguduste massiline likvideerimine. Selle kõrgajal, aastail 1962–1964, suleti Eestis 19 õigeusu kogudust ja 5 abikirikut, mis moodustab 74% kümnendi jooksul suletud pühakodadest. Likvideeriti kindla stsenaariumi alusel, kasutades formaalseid ja tegelikkusele mittevastavaid ajendeid ning ettekäändeid.

 
Summary.

The Estonian Orthodox Eparchy suffered many changes between 1954 and 1964. The beginning of the rule of N. Khrushchev changed drastically not only the policy of internal and external affairs, but also the life of churches and parishes in the Soviet Union. The new policy of religion caused the liquidation boom of religious congregations. Two periods can be distinguished in the policy of religion at that time: a liberal and a harsh period. In 1954–59 the religious affairs were handled quite liberally and tolerantly by Soviet authorities. Liquidation meant just official registration of the closing of the congregations that had already been closed. Generally, the process of closing Orthodox churches was peaceful.

The years 1960–64 are characterized by systematic violent liquidation of Orthodox congregations. In these years 18 churches and 5 subordinate churches were closed in Estonia. This makes up 74% of the total number of Orthodox churches closed during the decade under discussion. The liquidation of the congregations was carried out according to a certain scenario, and the pretexts and motives used were but formal and unrealistic.


References

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