eesti teaduste
akadeemia kirjastus
SINCE 1997
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Acta Historica Tallinnensia
ISSN 1736-7476 (Electronic)
ISSN 1406-2925 (Print)
Funerary Customs Among the Nobility of Swedish-Era Estonia: Status Signifiers Displayed During Funeral Processions and Their Placement in Churches; pp. 24–62
PDF | 10.3176/hist.2022.1.02

Veikko Varik

Most of the Swedish period church interiors in Estonia have lost a significant part of their former richness of detail over the past three hundred years. Whether the cause is wars or natural disasters. Therefore, relatively little secular memorabilia has been studied so far. This article tries to give an overview of this type of object on the basis of archival material, old photographs and individual surviving objects. The fleeting insight into the funeral customs associated with the use of these objects at funerals showed that Estonia was connected to the Swedish-Finnish cultural space and the cultural diffusion took place between these two regions. At the same time, the differences between the Lutheran and other denominations in the use of secular memorabilia stand out clearly.


1. G. O. F. Westling. Meddelanden om den kyrkliga kulten i Estland under det svenska väldets tid: kyrkohistorisk studie. [Rob. Sahlins boktryckeri], Sundsvall, 1896; G. O. F. Westling. Mittheilungen über den kirchlichen Cultus in Ehstland zur Zeit der schwedischen Herrschaft. Kirchengeschichtliche Studie. – Beiträge zur Kunde Ehst-, Liv- und Kurland, 1900, 5, 270–303; G. O. F. Westling. Von den religiösen und sittlichen Zuständen in Estland (1561–1710). – Beiträge zur Kunde Ehst-, Liv- und Kurland, 1900, 5, 333–352.

2. R. Winkler. Aus den Jugend- und ersten Amtsjahren des Oberpastors am Dom zu Reval Christoph Friedrich Mickwitz: geboren den 18. Januar 1696, gestorben den 20. März 1748. A. Mickwitz, Reval, 1908; R. Winkler. Zur Geschichte der Domkirche und der Domgemeinde während der letzten 25 Jahre schwedischer Herrschaft in Estland. A. Mickwitz, Reval, 1913.

3. E. von Nottbeck. Eine Rechnung über Begräbniβkosten aus dem 17. Jahrhundert. – Beiträge zur Kunde Ehst-, Liv-, und Kurlands, 1900, 5, 386–388.

4. S. Mäeväli. Mõnda matusekommetest Tallinnas 17.–19. sajandil. – Tallinna Linnamuuseumi aastaraamat 1996/97. Teaduste Akadeemia Kirjastus, Tallinn, 1997, 126–144.

5. A. von Ulmann. Mit „Pracht und Prahl“. Leichenbegängnisse in Estland. – Jahrbuch des baltischen Deutschtums 2006. Carl-Schirren-Gesellschaft e. V., Lüneburg, 2005, 22–52; A. von Ulmann. Mit Pracht und Prahl. Leichenbegängnisse des 17. Jahrhunderts in Estland. – Kunst- und Kulturgeschichte im Baltikum. (Studien zur Kunstgeschichte Kurlands, 24). Hg. v. L. O. Larsson. M.C.A. Böckler-Mare Balticum-Stiftung, Kiel, 2008, 85–96.

6. In summary, the current approach is seen in Merike Kurisoo’s texts in the 2013 exhibition catalogue and Krista Kodres’s overview article from 2017. See Ars moriendi – suremise kunst: näitus Niguliste muuseumis 02.11.2012–02.06.2013 = Ars moriendi – the Art of Dying: Exhibition in the Niguliste Museum 02.11.2012–02.06.2013. Catalogue texts by M. Kurisoo. Eesti Kunstimuuseum, Tallinn, 2013; K. Kodres. Trööst ja mäle(s)tamine: matuserituaal ja memoriaalkunst varauusaegses Eestis. – Kroonikast epitaafini. Eesti- ja Liivimaa varauusaegsest haridus- ja kultuurielust. Toim. K. Kaju. (Rahvusarhiivi toimetised, 1 (32)). Rahvusarhiiv, Tartu, 2017, 437−465.

7. Starting from Heinz Loeffler, these items in old Livonia have generally been called “armorial epitaphs” (Wappenepitaph), and the German equivalent of funerary hatchment (Totenschild, “death shield”) has also been used in parallel. In the area under study, the word “epitaph” meant a pictorial epitaph. Some Swedish authors also use the term “mortuary coat of arms” and generally “funeral achievement”. In my article, I have preferred the use of hatchment, i.e., a funeral coat of arms, and also “armorial bearing” as the most general terms. See H. Loeffler. Die Grabsteine, Grabmäler und Epitaphien in den Kirchen Alt-Livlands vom 13.–18. Jahrhundert. Verlag der Buchhandlung G. Löffler, Riga, 1929.

8. Cf. M. Loit. Tallinna Niguliste kiriku hauaplaatide kataloog. Manuscript, Tallinn (The Niguliste Museum), 2002, 4; E. von Nottbeck, W. Neumann. Geschichte und Kunstdenkmäler der Stadt Reval. Bd. 2, Die Kunstdenkmäler der Stadt. Lfg. 2, Kirchliche Kunst. Die Grabsteine Revals. Franz Kluge, Reval, 1899/1902, 163.

9. Der Kirchen St. Nikolai Todten-Buch (Grabsteinbuch), TLA.31.1.88:[232]; Denkelbuch der St. Nicolai-Kirche, TLA.31.1.142:91

10. Cf. M. Loit. Tallinna Niguliste kiriku hauaplaatide kataloog, 2, 4; E. von Nottbeck, W. Neumann. Kirchliche Kunst. Die Grabsteine Revals, 83.

11. J. Kuuskemaa. Memoriaalkunst: Vappepitaafid. – Eesti kunsti ajalugu 2. Peatoim. K. Kodres. Eesti Kunstiakadeemia, Tallinn, 2005, 412.

12. A. von Ulmann. Mit Pracht und Prahl, 94, 95.

13. There is no reference in the catalogue but the Ulmann article in question is listed in the bibliography. The use of the article as a source points to a repetition of a factual error (pertaining to monograms on helmets) in the catalogue. Cf. Ars moriendi, 82, 83; A. von Ulmann. Mit Pracht und Prahl, 94, 95.

14. P. Ehasalu. Sub specie aeternitatis. Varauusaegne epitaafmaal Eesti luterlikus kirikus 16.–17. sajandil. – Kunstiteaduslikke uurimusi, 2004, 14, 3–4, 11.

15. Denkelbuch ..., TLA.31.1.142:107.

16. Photo: Otto Kletzl / Richard Hamann-Mac Lean, Bildarchiv Foto Marburg: Bilddatei-Nr. fm150692, (1940); Bilddatei-Nr. fm150694 (1940); UT Library, Art history photograph collection: A-94-534.

17. Grabsteinbuch …, TLA.31.1.88: 29.

18. Probably between 1640–1643. See Ehst- und Livländische Brieflade. Eine Sammlung von Urkunden zur Adels- und Gütergeschichte Ehst- und Livlands, in Uebersetzungen und Auszügen, (Abt. 2, Bd. 1). Hg. v. E. Pabst; R. v. Toll. Kluge u. Ströhm, Reval, 1861, 475, 525.

19. E. von Nottbeck, W. Neumann. Kirchliche Kunst. Die Grabsteine Revals, 87.

20. UT Library, Art history photograph collection: B-94-567.

21. Nottbeck and Neumann report it belonged to a judge named Hochgreff who was the owner Hüüru and Kuivaveski manors and who died at the age of 76. Thus, it is plausible that the coat of arms belonged to Blasius [II] Hochgreve. See E. von Nottbeck, W. Neumann. Kirchliche Kunst. Die Grabsteine Revals, 83; Restitutionsakten. West-Harrien. Band II, RA, EAA.854.2.2320.

22. Nottbeck and Neumann say it was located close to the hatchment of Gotthard Wilhelm v. Essen (1676–1730). E. von Nottbeck, W. Neumann. Kirchliche Kunst. Die Grabsteine Revals, 83.

23. M. Loit. Tallinna Niguliste kiriku hauaplaatide kataloog, 2; A. von Ulmann. Mit Pracht und Prahl, 94.

24. The entry in the St. Nicholas’ inventory list from 1678 could mean that in addition to half armour on display; there were also three full suits of armour on the same wall. (3 gantze und ein halb harnisch). One of them could have been part of a set of objects mounted by the grave of Salomon Rabe (see table pos. no. 12). (Denkelbuch. …, TLA.31.1.142:107; Grabsteinbuch. …, TLA.31.1.88:[178].)

25. Grabsteinbuch. …, TLA.31.1.88:[208].

26. I established this in comparison with a suit of armour depicted in photos from prior to 1940 and displayed in Narva (2021).

27. E. von Nottbeck. Eine Rechnung über Begräbniβkosten, 387, 388.

28. Grabsteinbuch. …, TLA.31.1.88: [208].

29. Kodres believes that the expenditure on the items in question and repairing the armour (22 talers) was a large sum. K. Kodres. Trööst ja mäle(s)tamine, 444.

30. The use of the hired items for a cuirassier has been noted by Engström. See A. Engström. Olikhetens praktiker. Adlig begravningskultur i Sverige ca 1630–1680. (Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. Studia Historica Upsaliensia, 266). Uppsala Universitet, Uppsala, 2019, 83, 84.

31. This, too, was probably a used weapon. Verzeichniss der Beerdigungskosten, Schulden etc des seeligen Feldmarschal Baron Fabian von Fesen. Copie, RA, EAA.858.2.734: (page not numbered).

32. Akte betreffend die Beerdigungskosten des im Sturm verunglückten Johan Andreas von der Pahlen, seiner Frau und seines Sohnes, RA, EAA.854.2.1521: [11].

33. J. Naha considers this monogram to belong to Swedish King Kristiine. See J. Naha. Hiiumaa vanemate ajalooliste ehituste, kunstivarade ja kultuurilooliste mälestusmärkide inventariseerimise katse [Mapp 52. Hiiumaa, kd. I A-3569 (1920–1944)], l. 23 [26]., s. 12266, n. 2, f. 5025. Muinsuskaitse arhiiv Tallinnas (Archive of the Departament of National Heritage Board). ERA-T.76.1.11013.

34. A legend regarding the latter is that it was a gift to the baron from Carl XI.

35. Pastor Georg Handwig und die Erben der vormaligen Prediger auf Dagden contra die Erben der seligen Frau Christina Löwing der auch seligen Hauptmanns Erasmus Jacobsen Witwe ..., RA, EAA.858.2.1505.

36. Akte betreffend das Eigentumsrecht, die Verpachtung und den Zustand der Güter. Band X, RA, EAA.854.2.2226.

37. A. von Ulmann. Mit Pracht und Prahl, 95.

38. Ars moriendi, 82, 83.

39. The monogram of Carl X Gustav was a C and G next to each other, or a smaller G set inside the C. (Compare an engraving depicting the funeral of Carl X Gustav (Jean Le Pautre’s engraving according to drawing by Count E. Dahlberg) and the obverse of coins forged in during his reign in Tallinn.) Ulmann’s discussion reveals that the reason for the confusion is a mistaken interpretation of the C in the monogram, where it is mistaken for a G in the engraving. In the case of the other monogram, scholars failed to notice the royal crown and letter U. This monogram actually consists of the letters U and E and was that of Queen Ulrika Eleonora (see for example the queen’s monogram on the obverse of a 1-ducat gold coin minted in 1719–1720). 

40. Published: S. Mäeväli, E. Tromp. Tallinna toomkiriku epitaafid = Die Wappenepitaphe der Tallinner Domkirche = Epitaphs of the Tallinn Cathedral. Tallinn: Pakett, 2008, 46.

41. E. von Nottbeck, W. Neumann. Kirchliche Kunst. Die Grabsteine Revals, 84.

42. Nottbeck and Neumann as well as Sten Karling (with reference to them) have mistakenly said that the Bremen coat of arms was made in 1636. This is not borne out by either the position of the coat of arms – it belonged to a tomb acquired in early 1690 – or by the style of the carving. Nor do Baltic German genealogical reference books list an oberstleutnant Paul Johan v. Bremen as having died that year. But it is known that the Paul Johan by whose tomb the hatchment was mounted was born in Riga on 16 December 1636. Bremen’s date of birth is given by the above authors as 5 February 1592. This is very similar to the date of Paul Johan’s death – 5 February1692. Cf. E. von Nottbeck, W. Neumann. Kirchliche Kunst. Die Grabsteine Revals, 83, 84; S. Karling. Holzschnitzerei und Tischlerkunst der Renaissance und des Barocks in Estland. (Õpetatud Eesti Seltsi toimetised, 34). Õpetatud Eesti Selts, Tartu, 1943, 313; Genealogisches Handbuch der baltischen Ritterschaften: Teil Estland. Bd. 1–3. Im Auftrage des Verbandes des estländischen Stammadels bearbeitet von O. M. von Stackelberg. Verlag für Sippenforschung und Wappenkunde C. A. Starke, Görlitz, 1929–1931, 8.

43. UT Library, Art history photograph collection: B-94-547; B-94-3327; EFA. 98.0-29203.

44. Heinz Loeffler already mentioned that flags of mourning were hung next to hatchments in churches. H. Loeffler. Die Grabsteine, Grabmäler und Epitaphien, 94.

45. Presumably, W. Neumann and E. v. Nottbeck also provided an approximate rewording of this comment. (Cf. Grabsteinbuch. …, TLA.31.1.88:[232], Denkelbuch. …, TLA.31.1.142:91 and E. von Nottbeck. W. Neumann. Kirchliche Kunst. Die Grabsteine Revals, 163.)

46. UT Library, art history photograph collection: A-94-561.

47. E. von Nottbeck, W. Neumann. Kirchliche Kunst. Die Grabsteine Revals, 83.

48. Genealogisches Handbuch der baltischen Ritterschaften: Teil Estland, 409, 410.

49. Grabsteinbuch. ..., TLA.31.1.88: [206].

50.  E. von Nottbeck, W. Neumann. Kirchliche Kunst. Die Grabsteine Revals, 86.

51.  Ibid., 69; Photo: brothers Hans and Jaan Christin, TLM: F.7770:3 [before 1900].

52.  Nikolaikirche. Verschiedene Akten, TLA.230.1.Bl16.

53.  E. von Nottbeck, W. Neumann. Kirchliche Kunst. Die Grabsteine Revals, photo 37.

54. In the Estonian Archival Information System (AIS), the photograph has the title “Toomkirik, vaade altarile” (Cathedral, view of the altar).

55. Ibid., 84.

56. As 4 talers was the sum paid for carrying smaller flags, there is a widespread opinion that four small flags were carried. But this is not the case. See S. Mäeväli. Mõnda matuse­kommetest Tallinnas, 128; K. Kodres. Trööst ja mäle(s)tamine, 444.

57. For example, in the vicinity of the monument of Henrik Claesson Fleming buried in Münämäki Church on 31 August 1651, there were, in addition to armour, sword and coat of arms, also 14 flags with ancestors’ coats of arms, plus two large black-bordered flags. Armours were hanged at grave of rittmeister Falkenfelt (d. 1704). See T. Tuhkanen. Hyveellisen miehen ikuinen kunnia. (43–52) – Auraica. Scripta a Societate Porthan edita, 2009, 2, 45; H. Pirinen. Luterilaisen kirkkointeriöörin muotoutuminen Suomessa. Pitäjänkirkon sisustuksen muutokset reformaatiosta karoliinisen ajan loppuun (1527–1718). (Suomen muinaismuistoyhdistyksen ainakauskirja 103). Vammalan Kirjapaino OY, Vammala, 1996, 67, 68, 132.

58. Verzeichniss der Beerdigungskosten, RA, EAA.858.2.734: (page not numbered).

59. Both flags are in the collection of the Tallinn City Museum. (TLM 5870/a-b H395; TLM 5869/a-b H394 and Grabsteinbuch. …, TLA.31.1.88: [159], [222]; Surmajuhtumite registreerimise raamat, TLA.236.1.29: 402).

60. H. Peets. Tekstiilide konserveerimisest Eestis. Tekstiilide toestamine – Renovatum. Anno 2010, 12.

61. Derfelden’s flag also had the following text: Anno 1658. den 6 January Ist der HochVo[hl]gebohrn// Gestrenger. Vester und Ma[nnh]after HER: Johan von// Derfelden auff Leu[tel ...] Weltz Erbgesesse[r]// Ge[w]ese[n]er Manrichte[r...]m der Werke in G[...]f[...]m// Herren entschlaffen [S]eines al[te]rs ins 54te Jahre// Dero Seelen Gott gned[i]g seyn Wolle.

62. Cecilia Candréus made the same observation regarding flags located in Sweden. See C. Candréus. De hädangångnas heraldik: en studie av broderade begravningsfanor ca 1670–1720. Gidlund, Hedemora, 2008, 35.

63. EKLA, f 192, m 174:11(M.A): [6]; EKLA, ÕES, MB 58: [126].

64. [K. J. E. von Ungern-Sternberg]. Interieur der St. Olaikirche nach dem Brande des 16-t Juni 1820 [1821].

65. Surmajuhtumite registreerimise raamat, TLA.236.1.29: 366, 382.

66. C. E. Malm. Rapla kirik Harju maal. Rapla kogudusele mälestuseks. Lindworsi pärijad, Tallinn, 1868, 11.

67. Alu Manor was owned in 1647–1667 by the Landrat councillor and Baron of Luua Hans v. Wrangell, who died in summer 1667 and was buried in Tallinn Cathedral on 2 March 1668; next to his spouse who probably predeceased him. H. v. Wrangell owned burial site no. 63 there. It is extremely unlikely that he was re-interred in Rapla Church or that memorabilia hung by his burial site there were later taken to Rapla. (Restitutionsakten. RA, EAA.854.2.2320; Surmajuhtumite registreerimise raamat, TLA.236.1.29: 387, 525, 530.)

68. Heino Maandi believes the suit of armour belonged to Baron Toll, without providing more detailed explanations for this. See H. Maandi. Mälestusi Raplast: Kuidas talurahvas mattis oma surnuid. – Eesti Päevaleht = Estniska Dagbladet, 56 (4244), 27.07.1977, 7.

69. Pärnumaa: maadeteaduslik, tulunduslik ja ajalooline kirjeldus. Toimetajad: A. Tammekann, J. Kõpp, E. Kant. Eesti Kirjanduse Selts, Tartu, 1930, 472; N. N. Pärnu-Jakobi kirik 400-aastane. Pühaku auks ehitatud kirik andis hiljem nime terwele kihelkonnale. – Maa Hääl: maarahva ajaleht, no. 93, 10.8.1934, 3.

70. N. N. Mälestuslaululeht P. Jakobi kiriku 400 a. juubeli puhul. 1534–1934 12. augustil. H. Laane trükikoda, Pärnu, 1934, 9.

71. KJ I 47 (39). Manuscript: E 21890/1 (19) < Pärnu-Jaagupi, Vee v. – J. Reitvelt (1895): “There is yet another image next to the altar on the right side: a suit of armour carved from wood, shield, gauntlets, helm, bugle, sword, spear, pistol and many other small forms.”

72. “... zur Seite des Wappens Hut, Sporen, Tasche und Degen.” M. Körber. Oesel einst und jetzt., Bd. 3: Die Kirchspiele Mohn, St. Johannis, Karmel, Kergel, Karris und Runö, von dem Verfasser der “Bausteine zu einer Geschichte Oesels”. Typographie des Arensburger Wochenblattes, Arensburg, 1915, 6.

73. A monograph on Kaarma Church does not discuss them, unlike, for example, the “candle pipes” fastened to the wall. See T.-M. Kreem, K. Markus, A. Mänd. Kaarma kirik. (Eesti kirikud, 1). Muinsuskaitseamet, Tallinn, 2003.

74. J. Kuuskemaa. Memoriaalkunst: Vappepitaafid, 412.

75. S. Mäeväli, E. Tromp. Tallinna Toomkiriku epitaafid. EELK Tallinna piiskoplik toomkogudus, Tallinn, 2013; K. Kodres. Trööst ja mäle(s)tamine, 449.

76. The noteworthy difference between the figures stated by Kuuskemaa and Kodres stems from the different definition of hatchment. I do not consider it correct to describe as independent objects either the ancestral escutcheons that are part of a hatchment (Ahnenvapen: 27 in the Cathedral; Kuuskemaa calls them little armorial epitaphs, Tallinn Cultural Antiquities Department (compiler); Tallinn: Estonian Evangelical Lutheran Church Tallinn Cathedral Congregation, [2002], [17])) or “family trees” (6 in the Cathedral) or that they should be counted as hatchments belonging to cenotaphs created in the nineteenth century. In the Estonian art historiography corpus, donor coats of arms that were originally attached to church interiors and later removed are sometimes referred to as armorial epitaphs. See for example the National Register of Cultural Monuments: 28229 Margaretha Rosenstrale vapp-epitaaf, 17. saj. (puit, polükroomia); Pühakodade säilitamine ja areng 2014–2018. Compiled by A. Randla and S. Sombri. Muinsuskaitseamet, Tallinn, 2019, 148, 150, 151, etc.

77. I. von Corswant-Naumburg. Huvudbanér och anvapen under stormaktstiden. Ödins Förlag, Visby, 1999, 11.

78. A. Engström. Olikhetens praktiker, 316.

79. C.-T. von Christierson. Huvudbaner med anvapen i Finland. (432–457) – Historisk Tidskrift för Finland, 2017, 102, 3, 432, 433.

80. There is no comprehensive study on funerary hatchments in the Latvian part of Livonia and Courland. Data on their onetime existence can be found above all in the Johann Christoph Brotze collection kept by the Latvian University academic library (Sammlung verschiedener Liefländischer Monumente, Prospecte, Münzen, Wappen ets.). They have also been mentioned in overview works compiled regarding Riga churches. I have succeeded in identifying 117 hatchments in Livonian churches based on the mentioned sources and writings about escutcheons. About 1/3 of them are from the period following the Great Northern War. Naturally, these are not final figures. For example, according to Arend Buchholtz, about 70 hatchments are said to have been removed from the walls of Riga Cathedral in 1782. (A. Buchholtz. Denkmäler im Dom zu Riga. W. J. Häcker, Riga, 1885, 2, 3.)

81. Such a category of object is not even motioned in an overview work about East Prussian wood carving art. This in spite of the fact that alongside altars, chancels, baptism rooms and galleries, all other ways of marking graves are mentioned ranging from grave slabs to epitaphs, suspended commemorative signs and memorial plaques. Nor are funerary hatchments seen in photos of the church interiors of this region. See A. Ulbrich. Geschichte der Bildhauerkunst in Ostpreussen vom Ausgang des 16. bis in die 2. Hälfe des 19. Jahrhunderts, Bd. 1: Vom Ende des 16. Jahrhunderts bis in die Zeit von 1685 bis 1725 mit Einleitung über die gotische Kunst und die Renaissancezeit. Gräfe und Unzer, Königsberg, [1926]; A. Ulbrich. Geschichte der Bildhauerkunst in Ostpreussen vom Ende des 16. Jahrhunderts bis in die 2. Hälfe des 19. Jahrhunderts, Bd. 2: Vom Ende des 17. bis in die zweite Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts. Königsberg: Gräfe und Unzer, Königsberg, [1929].

82. Anno 1603. Man soll keinen edelleuten vergunstigen, ihre Wappen in der Kirchen auszuhangen, es sey denn das sie der Kirchen davor gerecht werden, denn wess ist der Kirchen mit ihren Wappen gedienet, wenn die Kirche nichts davor haben soll, es ist ein schlechter Ziradt und ihen eine grosse hoffardt. (Transcribed by Gotthard von Hansen) (Anno 1603. It should not be permitted for any noble-born man to hang their coats of arms in church unless they give to the church what is the church’s due, for what benefit could a church reap from these coats of arms if the church does not get anything for it; [thus] it is a bad habit and [only] for them a great hope.) See G. von Hansen. Die Kirchen und ehemaligen Klöster Revals. Lindfors’ Erben, Reval, 1873, 17; E. von Nottbeck, W. Neumann. Kirchliche Kunst. Die Grabsteine Revals, 52; H. Loeffler. Die Grabsteine, Grabmäler und Epitaphien, 93; J. Kuuskemaa. Memoriaalkunst: Vappepitaafid, 412; A. v. Ulmann. Mit Pracht und Prahl, 87; T.-M. Kreem, T. Kröönström, I. Aaso-Zahradnikova, H. Hiiop, A. Randla. Christian Ackermann – Tallinna Pheidias, ülbe ja andekas. Eesti Kunstiakadeemia, Tallinn, 2020, 77, 78.

83. As to when the custom in Estonia started and ended, there are as yet no scientific explanations or hypotheses. For instance, unlike Kuuskemaa’s opinion, that coats of arms were hung in churches in 1603 at the latest, Kodres says the shield-epitaphs began to be hung in churches “from the close of the seventeenth century thenceforth”. See J. Kuuskemaa. Memoriaalkunst: Vappepitaafid, 412; K. Kodres. Trööst ja mäle(s)tamine, 449.

84. According to von Ulmann’s hypothesis, nobles did not pay remuneration for coats of arms as a result of successful lobbying to that effect. See A. von Ulmann. Mit Pracht und Prahl, 87.

85. Brotze’s notes include a remark about this, where he refers to something heard from elderly people. (A. Buchholtz. Denkmäler im Dom zu Riga, 23, 24.) See also Tallinna toomkiriku vappepitaafid. Texts by J. Kuuskemaa. EELK Tallinna Toomkogudus, Tallinn, [2002], 2; C. Candréus. De hädangångnas heraldik, 25; J. Kuuskemaa. Memoriaalkunst: Vappepitaafid, 412; Ars moriendi, 126; K. Kodres. Trööst ja mäle(s)tamine, 444, 449; A. Engström. Olikhetens praktiker, 113.

86. T.-M. Kreem et al. Christian Ackermann, 190.

87. Grabsteinbuch. ..., TLA.31.1.88: [32].

88. Currently located in an exhibition in St. Nicholas’ Art Museum. Nottbeck and Neumann have recorded his date of death as 1653. See E. von Nottbeck, W. Neumann. Kirchliche Kunst. Die Grabsteine Revals, 83.

89. It should be remembered that after the carvings were completed, the hatchment was sent to a painter, whose work was often valued higher than the carver’s. Metal additions were then made by a smith and finally a mason handled the mounting process.

90. In the course of the hanging of hatchments on the wall of the cathedral following conservation, the press was told that the heaviest ones were up to 400 kg. A. Alas. Toomkirikusse paigutati viis uuendatud vappi – Eesti Päevaleht, 21 January 2003.

91. Here we see a big difference from the Livonian part of Baltic region. The funerary hatchments of the burgers appeared in the churches of Riga already in the 1680s, and in the eighteenth century they formed the vast majority of new ones.

92. K. Kodres. Trööst ja mäle(s)tamine, 444.

93. See for example B. de Chasseneuz. Catalogvs gloriae mvndi, lavdes, honores, excellentias, ac praeeminentias omnivm fere statvvm. Per Dionysium de Harsy, Lyon, 1529; M. Wagner, M. Von des Adels ankunfft Oder Spiegel: Sampt zweien Ritterlichen Adelichen Geschlechtenn. Kurtzer auszug aus vielen Antiquiteten. Magdeburg, 1581; C. Spangenberg. Adels Spiegel. Historischer Ausfürlicher Bericht: Das Adel sey und heisse, Woher erkomme, Wie mancherley er sey, Und Was denselben ziere und erhalte, auch hingegen verstelle und schwäche. Michel Schmück, Schmalkalden, 1591; C. Spangenberg. Ander Theil des Adels Spiegels. Was Adel mache befördere ziere vermehre und erhalte: und hinwider schwäche verstelle und verringere. Darinnen auch am Adler und sonst durch vielfeltige und mancherley Vermanung und Warnung in Spruchen und Exempeln ein schöne Regentenspiegel. Michel Schmück, Schmalkalden, 1594.

94. “Bey uns Deutschen ist der brauch,... und mitbescharret wird das Pferd fellet der Kirche oder dem Pfarherrn anheim, oder wird von der Freundschafft mit Gelde wider abgelöset. An etlichen orten wird iren Leychen auch ir Helm, Brustharnisch oder Kriegsmantel, Schwerdt, Sporen, Handschuch, ect. fürgetragen.” (Spangenberg (1594), 287)

95. It is impossible to trace stages of the funeral ritual in the customs described in part II of the publication cited by Kodres (1594), and these stages could correspond to the ritual stages derived from the list of Baron Konrad v. Uexküll’s funeral expenses, as she believes. But, as the title of the work indicates, it is a detailed historical overview (Historischer Ausfürlicher Bericht) of various customs in different times and places. Nor does the work describe the antecedents from antiquity they were based on; rather, Spangenberg refers in describing the customs of the contemporary nobility to a work by Barthélemy de Chasseneuze (1480–1542), Catalogvs gloriae mvndi 1529). Cf. K. Kodres. Trööst ja mäle(s)tamine, 444; Spangenberg (1594), 287, 287p.

96. Engström has called this the most intimate/personal part of the procession. (A. Engström. Olikhetens praktiker, 128)

97. See for example the funerals of admiral Jacob van Heemskerck (1607), Maurice, Prince of Orange (1627), Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange (1647), Abraham van de Velde (1677), Hendrik Adriaan van Rheede (1692), etc. William Frederick, Prince of Nassau-Dietz, at whose funeral (1665) a mounted knight was used, was from a family with a strong Lutheran tradition. See L. Nissen. Staging the Nassau-Dietz Identity: Funerary Culture and Managing Succession at the Frisian Nassau Court in the Seventeenth Century (15–30) – The Court Historian, 2020, 25, 1, 29.

98. See for example the funerals of William Louis, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg (1620), Ernest Casimir, Count of Nassau-Dietz (1633), and Admiral Michiel Adriaenszoon de Ruyter (1677).

99. See for example the funeral of Johan Willem Friso te Leeuwarden (1712).

100. C. Galle. [Begrafenisstoet van aartshertog Albrecht], Pl. LI, (1623).

101. A similar caparison was also universally used to cover the coffin. Yet the meaning of a caparisoned horse could vary from region to region. For example, all of the yoked horses wore a similar caparison at the funeral of Louis XIV.

102. F. Brentel. Vaudemont et Clermont, poursuivants d’armes, les sénéchaux de Lorraine et Barrois...., Pl. 31 (after the drawing by Claude de la Ruelle: 1610–1611).

103. See for example H. Goltzius. Haec Pompa funebris spectata suit ... [Willem van Oranje grave] (1584), pl. 1; J. van de Velde (II). Hæc pompa fvnebris spectata fvit Delphis batavorum decimo sexto septembris Anno 1625, (1626) J. van Doetechum (I). [Wapens en insignia van Karel V], (1619), (Hieronymus Cock’i järgi), 34. Such stands can also be seen In paintings and drawings of church interior starting from Pieter Janszoon of Saenredam (see Cathedral of Saint John at ‘s-Hertogenbosch:1646). They are found in the works of Daniël de Blieck, Emanuel de Witte (Oude Kerk (1650), Oude Kerk (1669), Intérieur d’église gothique (1679) and others), and less frequently also in the works of Dirck van Delen and Hendrick van Vliet and Anthonie van Borssom. 

104. L. Rangström. Dödens Teater. Kungliga svenska begravningar genom fem århundraden, Stockholm: Bokförlaget Atlantis, 2015, 17, 21.

105. F. Hogenberg. Lijkstatie van Karel V (1559), plates 3–4, 6–29.

106. S. Frisius. [Funeral procession] (1592) (after the drawing by Abraham Hogenberg); A. Engström. Olikhetens praktiker, 184.

107. [F. Hogenberg]. Begrafenisstoet op de binnenplaats van de burg te Düsseldorf (1592).

108. F. Brentel. [Funeral procession] (1610/1611) (after the drawing by Claude de la Ruelle).

109. As does Pia Ehasalu in her work, the Estonian-language version of this thesis used the term “matuselipp” (funerary flag) for this type of flag. The researchers at Tallinn City Museum use the term “leinalipp” (mourning flag) to denote the same category of objects. See P. Ehasalu. Sub specie aeternitatis, 11.

110. There was no rider in Catholic funerals. It was replaced by a battle steed in full array but without a rider (le cheval bardé pour bataille). F. Brentel. Vaudemont et Clermont, poursuivants d’armes, les sénéchaux de Lorraine et Barrois...., Pl. 31 (after the drawing by Claude de la Ruelle: 1610–1611).

111. P. Isselburg. Wahrhaffte Abbildunge des ... Leichgevreng des ... Johann Ernsts des Jüngern Herzog zu Sachsen etc. [1627] (after the drawing by Cristian Richter).

112. J. Schweizer. [Funeral procession of the Landgraf von Hessen-Darmstadt], [1662].

113. “…Först kommer ett långt tåg af andliga. Efter dem rider på enpansarklädd häst en man, väpnad från hufvud till fot, närmast framför liket, som hvilar på en präktig bår. Förridaren gifver man ett blottadt svärd att bära i högra handen med fästet lyftadt mot himlen samt hänger på hans rygg den sköld med tillhörande märke, som den döde burit i strid. Allt detta öfverlämna arfvingarna tillika med några jordagods såsom en frivillig gåfva till den helgedom, där begrafningen sker. Dock varda hästen, svärdet och vapenrustningen genast till skäligt pris återköpta af sagda arfvingar; allenast skölden blifver kvar och upphänges på en förnämlig plats i kyrkan, till ett tecken att denne utmärkte man varit boren af en ärorik ätt, och att han redligen kämpat för Guds ära och för sanning och rätt, ...” (O. Magnus Gothus. Historia om de nordiska folken. Roma, MDLV, book, 6, chapt. 47 [762].)

114. C. A. Jensen. Danske adelige gravsten. Planchebind.Andr. Fred. Høst & sons forlag, København, 1951.

115. F. Hogenberg. Res Gestae Serenissimi Potentissimiq[ve] Ac Domini Friderici II ... (1588/89), pl. 15.

116. Author unknown. Wahre abris des Procesz, so zü Dresden Vnd FreŸbürg Vber Der Begrebnüsz Des D.H. Fürsten ..., [1598].

117. I. von Corswant-Naumburg. Huvudbanér och anvapen under stormaktstiden. Ödins Förlag, Visby, 1999, 26.

118. H. Nützel. Deductio funeris ex Regio triclinio in arcis Sacellum …, [1593].

119. R. Bennett. Vadstena klosterkyrka. III Gravminnen (Sveriges kyrkor: Östergötland), Gravminnen. Almqvist & Wiksell, Stockholm, 1985, 22.

120. E. Bohrn, R. Bennett. Strängnäs domkyrka. II: 1, Gravminnen, Södermanland band II:1, Volym 159 av Sveriges kyrkor, konsthistoriskt inventarium. Almqvist & Wiksell, Stockholm, 1974, 15–29.

121. F. van Hulsen. [Funeral procession], (1634).

122. J. Sasse. Des veilandt Hoghgeboren fursten vndt herren, h. JOHANN CASIMIR, Pfaltz graffen bey Rhein in Beyern, zu Gulich, Clevevndt Bergen, ... [1652]; A. Engström. Olikhetens praktiker, 126.

123. Author unknown. Vera representatio, quo ritu lugubri funus Gustavi Magni ... fuerit (1633).

124. See e. g. Samuel von Pufendorf. De rebus o Carolo Gustavo, Sueciae gestis commentarium libri septem... (after Erik Dahlberg) [1700].

125. A. Engström. Olikhetens praktiker, 123–137.

126. G. Lindahl. Grav och rum. Svenskt gravskick från medeltiden till 1800-talets slut. (Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademiens Handlingar. Antikvariska serien, 21). Almqvist & Wiksell, Stockholm, 1969.

127. I. von Corswant-Naumburg. Huvudbanér och anvapen under stormaktstiden.; I. von Corswant-Naumburg. Huvudbaner och anvapen inom Skara stift. En heraldisk och genealogisk inventering. Skara, 2006.

128. C. Candréus. De hädangångnas heraldik: en studie av broderade begravningsfanor ca 1670-1720. Gidlund, Hedemora, 2008; C. Candréus. The Use of Printed Designs in 17th-Century Embroidery – Layers of Transfer and Interpretation.– Konsthistorisk tidskrift/Journal of Art History, 2013, 82, 3, 191–204.

129. Published from 1912.

130. See for example S. Kinman. Vapenhistorisk inventering av kyrkor I Skara stift: med föremålsbeskrivningar, kommentarer och jämförelser. Skara stiftshistoriska sällskap, Skara, 2005; S. Kinman. Vapenhistorisk inventering av kyrkor i Uppsala stift: med föremålsbeskrivningar, kommentarer och jämförelser – Svenska vapenhistoriska sällskapets skrifter, N. S., No. 23. Svenska vapenhistoriska sällskapet, Stockholm, 2008, [17]–192; S. Kinman. Edged weapons in Sweden: partly based upon research results and findings in Swedish churches. Svenska vapenhistoriska sällskapet, Stockholm, 2014.

131. I. Kozina, J. K. Ostrowski. Grabfahnen mit Porträtdarstellungen in Polen und Ostpreußen.– Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte, 1992, 55, 2, 225–255.

132. A. Ulbrich. Geschichte der Bildhauerkunst in Ostpreußen vom Ausgang des 16. bis in die 2. Hälfe des 19. Jahrhunderts. Bd. 1, Vom Ende des 16. Jahrhunderts bis in die Zeit von 1685 bis 1725 mit Einleitung über die gotische Kunst und die Renaissancezeit. Gräfe und Unzer, Königsberg, 1926.

133. C.-T. von Christierson. Huvudbaner med anvapen i Finland.

134. I. Kozina, J. K. Ostrowski. Grabfahnen mit Porträtdarstellungen, 254. See also Dom in Königsberg in Preußen [Innenansicht mit Blick zum Chor] (1892), (Bildarchiv Foto Marburg, Nr.: 300b (96)); Arnau/Ostpreussen Dorfkirche. Innenraum, (1938), (Bildarchiv Foto Marburg, Nr.: 343.527).

135. See for example Königsberg, Dom Chor nach NO [1934–1944] (Bildarchiv Foto Marburg, Nr.: fm1204452).

136. See for example I. Kozina, J. K. Ostrowski. Grabfahnen mit Porträtdarstellungen, 253; Foto: Archiv Dr. Franz Stoedtner, Bildarchiv Foto Marburg: Bilddatei-Nr. fm1204452, (um 1939/1940?).

137. See for example BFM, Nr.: fm1204452; Dom in Königsberg in Preußen [Innenansicht mit Blick zum Chor] (1892) (Berlin, Universität der Künste Berlin, Universitätsarchiv, Inventar-Nr. 300b, 96, Messbilder); Author unknown. Innere Ansicht des Doms zu Königsberg (1836) (lithography after Johan Karl Schultz); I. Kozina, J. K. Ostrowski. Grabfahnen mit Porträtdarstellungen, Photo. 29.

138. See for example Dom in Königsberg in Preußen [Innenansicht mit Blick zum Chor] (1892), (Bildarchiv Foto Marburg, Nr.: 300b (96)); Königsberg, Dom Chor nach NO [1934–1944] (Bildarchiv Foto Marburg, Nr.: fm1204452).

139. See for example the memorial flags of barons Christer Carlsson (d. 1659) and Gustaf Christersson (d. 1645) Bonde in Aspö Church.

140. T. Tuhkanen. “In memoriam sui et suorum posuit.” Lahjoittajien muistokuvat Suomen kirkoissa 1400-luvulta 1700-luvun lopulle. Åbo akademis förlag, Åbo, 2005, 165.

141. J. Ch. Brotze. Sammlung verschiedener Liefländischer Monumente, Prospecte, Münzen, Wappen ets. T. 2, Fol. 95, 102.

142. The suit of armour belonging to Axel Jönsson Kurck, donated to the Finnish National Museum in 1875 by Ulvila congregation, was mounted in the church in 1630.

143. Engström has used the term kyrassryttaren. Another, older term, kyritsryttaren, was also used at an exhibition held in Stockholm in 2015, Dödens teater, and the related publication. Cf. L. Rangström, L. Dödens Teater and A. Engström. Olikhetens praktiker.

144. One such hatchment, with a helm and gauntlets, is that of lieutenant general Blecher Wachtmeister (d. 1701) in Kalmar Cathedral and the one for Carl Gustaf Dahlberg (d. 1697) in the Dahlbergs’ chapel at Turinge Church, which has gauntlets but lacks a helm.

145. See for example the Patkull hatchment in Sipoo Church.

146. See for example also the hatchment of Gerhard Friedrich Kuhlman (d. 1691) that was hanging in Tammela Church in 1943. I. Kronqvist. Kuhlman-suvun vaakuna Tammelan kirkossa – Kotiseutukuvauksia Lounais-Hämeestä, 23. Forssan Kirjapaino Oy, Forssa, 1942, 59–61.

147. See for example the funerary hatchments of Johan Gjös (d. 1697) and Gustaf Sölferkling (d. 1698) in Tenhola Church.

148. For example, memorial flags for Johann (d. 1645) and Wolmar Stackelberg (d. 1652) were still hanging in Örebro Cathedral in the nineteenth century. The customs of the Baltic nobility in the use of hatchments in Sweden has been researched by Sigurd Wallin. (See E. Lundberg.; B. Waldén. Örebro stads kyrkor. Kunsthistorisk inventarium Bd. I, Hft. I. Editors: S. Curman; J. Roosval. Centraltryckeriet, Stockholm, 1939, 131, 132; S. Wallin. Svensk processionsvapensed hos baltisk adel – Svio-Estonica: Studier utgivna av Svensk-estniska samfundet = Akadeemilise Rootsi-Eesti Seltsi toimetused, 16 (Ny följd 7). Skånska Centraltryckeriet, Lund, 1962, 73–100.

149. The Brotze collection contains a drawing of a copper engraving depicting the funeral procession of the Courland Duke Friedrich (1643), which is exceptional as two riders in armour are shown simultaneously. (Sammlung verschiedener Liefländischer Monumente, Prospecte, Münzen, Wappen ets. T. 4, fol. 23–31).

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