eesti teaduste
akadeemia kirjastus
SINCE 1997
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Acta Historica Tallinnensia
ISSN 1736-7476 (Electronic)
ISSN 1406-2925 (Print)

Transnational History and the History of a Nation: The Case of Estonia; pp. 3–38

Full article in PDF format | 10.3176/hist.2021.1.01

Karsten Brüggemann


This article introduces the special issue of Acta Historica Tallinnensia on the potential and challenges of the ‘transnational turn’ for writing Estonian history. It outlines the general ideas behind the concept of transnational history, the historiographical debates surrounding it, and the place of Eastern Europe (in particular Estonia) within the field. Moreover, it introduces the contributions of this issue and discusses questions for further research.


1. Whelehan, N. Playing with Scales: Transnational History and Modern Ireland. – Transnational Perspectives on Modern Irish History. Ed. by N. Whelehan. Routledge, New York and London, 2015, 7–29, quotation: 7. On transnational Irish history, see Delaney, E. Our Island Story? Towards a Transnational History of late Modern Ireland. – Irish Historical Studies, 2011, 37 (148), 599–621.

2. For fascinating syntheses, see Bayly, C. A. The Birth of the Modern World 1780–1914. Blackwell, Oxford, 2004; Bayly, C. A. Remaking the Modern World 1900–2015: Global Connections and Comparisons. Wiley Blackwell, Hoboken, 2018; Pomeranz, K., Topik, S.The World that Trade Created: Society, Culture, and the World Economy, 1400 – the Present. Sharpe, Armonk, 1999; Pomeranz, K. The Great Divergence: China, Europe, and the Making of the Modern World Economy. Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2000; Armitage, D. The Declaration of Independence: A Global History. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 2008; and, Osterhammel, J. Die Verwandlung der Welt. Eine Geschichte des 19. Jahrhunderts. Beck, München, 2009 (trans. as The Transformation of the World: A Global History of the Nineteenth Century. Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2014). See the book series: Empires and Encounters, 1350–1750 (A History of the Modern World, 3.) Ed. by W. Reinhard. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 2015; An Emerging Modern World, 1750–1870 (A History of the Modern World, 4.) Ed. by S. Conrad, J. Osterhammel. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 2018; A World Connecting, 1870–1945 (A History of the Modern World, 5.) Ed. by E. S. Rosenberg. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 2012; Global Interdependence. The World after 1945 (A History of the Modern World, 6.) Ed. by A. Iriye. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 2014; and, The Cambridge World History. Ed. by M. E. Wiesner-Hanks. Vols. 1–7, 2. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2015.

3. Valk, H., Šnē, A. Vor- und Frühgeschichte. – Das Baltikum. Geschichte einer europäischen Region. Bd. 1: Von der Vor- und Frühgeschichte bis zum Ende des Mittelalters. Hrsg. von K. Brüggemann, D. Henning, K. Maier, R. Tuchtenhagen. Stuttgart 2018, 77–143.

4. Meri, L. Remarks of the President of the Republic at the Jagellonia University of Krakow, 30 April 1998. URL: (last accessed 6 October 2020).

5. Whelehan, N. Playing with Scales. For transnational history in states with culturally divided populations, Canada and Belgium, and the domination of national history writing there, see Dubinsky, K., Perry, A., Yu, H.: Introduction: Canadian History, Transnational History. – Within and Without the Nation. Canadian History as Transnational History. Ed. by K. Dubinsky, A. Perry, H. Yu. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 2015, 3–23; and, Van Ginderachter, M., Warland G. How Regional, National and Transnational History Has (Not) Been Written in Belgium: Reflections within a European Perspective. – Transnational Challenges to National History Writing. Ed. by M. Middell, L. Roura. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, 2013, 404–422.

6. Kivimäe, J. Re-writing Estonian History? – National History and Identity: Approaches to the Writing of National History in the North-East Baltic Region, Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Ed. by M. Branch. (Studia Fennica, 6.) Finnish Literary Society, Helsinki, 1999, 205–212; Kivimäe, J., Kivimäe, S. Geschichtsschreibung und Geschichtsforschung in Estland 1988–2001. – Österreichische Osthefte, 2002, 44, 1/2, 159–170; and, Brüggemann, K. “Wir brauchen viele Geschichten”. Estland und seine Geschichte auf dem Weg nach Europa? – GegenErinnerung. Geschichte als politisches Argument im Transformationsprozeß Ost-, Ostmittel- und Südosteuropas. (Schriften des Historischen Kollegs, 61.) Hrsg. von H. Altrichter. Oldenbourg, München, 2006, 27–50.

7. Tarvel, E. Eesti rahva lugu. Varrak, Tallinn, 2018. The sharp public debate provoked in 2012 when a group of mainly young historians published the second volume of a “History of Estonia” in the Middle Ages may be a case in point here. For relevant literature, see Brüggemann, K. Five Letters on the Roof: National Narratives and the Soviet Past in Estonia. – The New Heroes – The Old Victims. Politics of Memory in Russia and the Baltics. Ed. by I. Gubenko, D. Hanovs, V. Mlahovskis. Zinatne, Riga, 2016, 50–59.

8. Tamm, M. History as Cultural Memory: Mnemohistory and the Construction of the Estonian Nation. – Journal of Baltic Studies, 2008, 39, 4, 499–516.

9. Tarvel, E. Eesti rahva lugu, 9.

10. Tarvel, E. Eesti rahva lugu, 32. For a general critique, see Kaljundi, L. Ajaloovaidlustest, tõest ja dialoogist. – Sirp, 20 April 2018. Concerning the case of the historiography of Ukraine, it has been stated that the “problem is not so much nationalized history itself, with its rather archaic cognitive and classifying apparatus, its orientation on satisfying ideological demand, and its intellectual hermeticism (for it is entirely self-sufficient). The problem lies, rather, in its extensive mass self-replication, which creates conditions uncongenial to the diversification of intellectual space and to the establishment and existence of other versions of both nationalized history and national histories in the framework of Ukrainian history, to say nothing of the possibility of creating transnational histories of Ukraine.” Kasianov, G. “Nationalized” History: Past Continuous, Present Perfect, Future… – A Laboratory of Transnational History. Ukraine and Ukrainian Historiography since 1991. Ed. by G. Kasianov, P. Ther. Central European University Press, Budapest, 2009, 7–23, quotation: 22. It seems that in Estonia the situation is much more favourable to the transnational approach.

11. Selart, A. Eestlaste oma ajalooteadus. – Keel ja Kirjandus, 2018, 1–2, 41–49.

12. Struck, B., Ferris, K., Revel, J. Introduction: Space and Scale in Transnational History. – International History Review, 2011, 33, 4, 573–584, quotation: 577.

13. Osterhammel, J. Global History (with a comment by P.-Y. Saunier and a response by Osterhammel). – Debating New Approaches to History. Ed. by M. Tamm, P. Burke. Bloomsbury, London, 2019, 21–47, quotation: 22. For the popularity of global history see the series of small books on the global history of various foodstuff and drinks such as rum, gin, tea, as well as pizza, hot dogs and curry, published by Reaktion Books. See, for example, Weiss, L. Ice Cream: A Global History. Reaktion Books, London, 2011. 

14. A Transnational Setting for Estonian History: Transcultural Entanglements, International Organisations and Transborder Migrations (16th–21st Centuries) (IUT31-6).

15. See the essays in GegenErinnerung. 

16. “Fortunately, there are many different ways of doing transnational history.” Osterhammel, J. A ‘Transnational’ History of Society. Continuity of New Departure? – Comparative and Transnational History. Central European Approaches and New Perspectives. Ed. by H.-G. Haupt, J. Kocka. Berghahn, New York, 2009, 39–51, quotation: 49. Osterhammel’s recent remark that the threshold of acceptance in the case of Global History would have been much higher if “all global history nailed orthodox postcolonialism to its mast” is, of course, true also for Transnational History. Osterhammel, J. Global History, 41; Bayly, C., Beckert, S., Connelly, M., Hofmeyr, I., Kozol, W., Seed, P. AHR Conversation: On Transnational History. – American Historical Review, 2006, 111, 5, 1440–1465, here 1454;
and, Conrad, S., Osterhammel, J. Einleitung. – Das Kaiserreich transnational. Deutschland in der Welt 1871–1914. Hrsg. von S. Conrad, J. Osterhammel. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen, 2004, 7–27, quotation: 14–15.

17. Iriye, A., Saunier, P.-Y. The Professor and the Madman. – The Palgrave Dictionary of Transnational History. Ed. by A. Iriye, P.-Y. Saunier. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, 2009, XVII–XX, quotation: XVIII. On the question how the Japanese born Iriye (b. 1934) who as a classical diplomatic historian for decades teaches in the USA and Japan, and the French born Saunier (b. 1963) who as an expert on French urban history works in Canada can stand for inter-generational, inter-continental and inter-topical cooperation epitomising the rise of transnational history, see Patel, K. K. An Emperor without Clothes? The Debate about Transnational History Twenty-Five Years on. – histoire@politique, 2015, 26. URL: (last accessed 7 December 2020). 

18. Bayly, C. et al., On Transnational History, 1440; David-Fox, M. The Implications of Transnationalism. – Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History, 2011, 12, 4, 885–904, quotation: 885–886.

19. Iriye, A. Global and Transnational History: The Past, Present, and Future. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, 2013, 15.

20. Osterhammel, J. A ‘Transnational’ History of Society, 47.

21. The Palgrave Dictionary of Transnational History. See also The Routledge Handbook of Transregional Studies. Ed. by M. Middell. Routledge, London, 2018. 

22. Whelehan, N. Playing with Scales, 8.

23. Patel, K. K. An Emperor without Clothes?; and, Stelzel, P. Transnationalism and the History of Historiography: A Transatlantic Perspective. – History Compass, 2015, 13, 2, 78–87. On earlier non-academic uses of the term transnational, see Saunier, P.-Y. Transnational History. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, 2013, 13–32.

24. Wehler, H.-U. Transnationale Geschichte – der neue Königsweg historischer Forschung? – Transnationale Geschichte. Themen, Tendenzen und Theorien. Jürgen Kocka zum 65. Geburtstag. Hrsg. von G. Budde, S. Conrad, O. Janz. Vandenhoek & Ruprecht, Göttingen, 2006, 161–174, quotation: 163–167. Of course, other fields may come to mind as well, for example the history of ideas or business history. See the articles in the same volume Rothschild, E. Arcs of Ideas. International History and Intellectual History. – Transnationale Geschichte, 217–226; and, Feldman, G. D. Business History, Comparative History, and Transnational History. – Transnationale Geschichte, 254–264.

25. Linden, M. v. d. Transnational Labour History: Explorations. Ashgate, Aldershot, 2003, 3. See Grenzüberschreitende Arbeitergeschichte: Konzepte und Erkundungen = Labour History Beyond Borders: Concepts and Explorations. Ed. by M. v. d. Linden, E. Himmelstoss. (ITH-Tagungsberichte, 44.) Akademische Verlagsanstalt, Leipzig, 2010. Interestingly enough, neo-Marxist political science expects “transnational solidarity emerging through processes of concrete class struggle” as global reactions of workers to neoliberal solutions. Bieler, A., Lindberg, I. Globalisation and the New Challenges for Transnational Solidarity: an Introduction. – Global Restructuring, Labour and the Challenges for Transnational Solidarity. Ed. by A. Bieler, I. Lindberg. (Rethinking Globalizations, 25.) Routledge, London, 2011, 3–15, quotation: 14.

26. See, for example, Das Kaiserreich transnational. Deutschland in der Welt 1871–1914. Hrsg. von S. Conrad, J. Osterhammel. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen, 2006, and the recent analysis After the Imperialist Imagination: Two Decades of Research on Global Germany and Its Legacies. (Transnational Cultures, 3.) Ed. by D. Price, M. Krishnan, D. Pizzo, S. Pugach, A. Blackler, Peter Lang, Oxford, 2020.

27. See, for example, Levi, G. On Microhistory. – New Perspectives on Historical Writing. Ed. by P. Burke. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1991, 93–113; Warren Sabean, D. Reflections on Microhistory. – Transnationale Geschichte, 275–298; and, Ghobrial, J.-P. A. Introduction: Seeing the World like a Microhistorian. – Past & Present, 2019, 242, Issue Supplement 14: Global History and Microhistory, 1–22. 

28. Quenet, G. Environmental History (with a comment by S. Sörlin and a response by G. Quenet). – Debating New Approaches to History, 75–100.

29. Enders, W., Sandler, T., Gaibulloev, K. Domestic versus Transnational Terrorism: Data, Decomposition, and Dynamics. – Journal of Peace Research, 2011, 48, 3, 319–337; Entangled Protest: Transnational Approaches to the History of Dissent in Eastern Europa and the Soviet Union. (Einzelveröffentlichungen des Deutschen Historischen Instituts Warschau, 31.) Ed. by R. Brier. Fibre, Osnabrück, 2013; Special Issue: Global and Transnational Sport: Ambiguous Borders, Connected Domains. Ed. by S. Naha. – Sport in Society, 2017, 20, 10; Tourism and Travel During the Cold War. Negotiating Tourist Experiences Across the Iron Curtain. Ed. by S. Bechmann Pedersen, C. Noack. Routledge, London, 2019; Chalk, P.: The Transnational Spread of Disease. – Chalk, P. Non-Military Security and Global Order. The Impact of Extremism, Violence, and Chaos on National and International Security. St. Martin’s Press, New York, 2000, 95–114; Spinney, L. Pale Rider. The Spanish Flu of 1918 and how it Changed the World. Jonathan Cape, London, 2017. See transnational studies on the disaster in Chernobyl: Brown, K. Plutopia: Nuclear Families, Atomic Cities, and the Great Soviet and American Plutonium Disasters. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2013; Kalmbach, K. The Meanings of a Disaster: Chernobyl and Its Afterlives in Britain and France. Berghahn, New York, 2020; Arndt, M. Tschernobylkinder. Die transnationale Geschichte einer nuklearen Katastrophe. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen, 2020.

30. Osterhammel, J. Global History; Bayly, C. A. History and World History. – A Concise Companion to History. Ed. by U. Rublack. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2011, 3–26; Gallus, A., Schildt, A., Siegfried, D. Deutsche Zeitgeschichte – transnational. – Deutsche Zeitgeschichte – transnational. Hrsg. von A. Gallus, A. Schildt, D. Siegfried. Wallstein Verlag, Göttingen, 2015, 11–23, quotation: 15–16; and, Werner, M., Zimmermann, B. Beyond Comparison: Histoire Croisée and the Challenge of Reflexivity. – History and Theory, 2006, 45, 1, 30–50. See the articles in Comparative and Transnational History, and Hilton, M., Mitter, R. Introduction. – Past & Present, 2013, 218, Issue supplement 8: Transnationalism and Contemporary Global History, 7–28. With a focus on non-European aspects, see Pernau, M. Transnationale Geschichte. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen, 2011.

31. Geyer, M., Bright, C. World History in a Global Age. – American Historical Review, 1995, 100, 4, 1034–1060; Mazlish, B. Comparing Global History to World History. – The Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 1998, 28, 3, 385–395; The Global History Reader. Ed. by B. Mazlish. Routledge, New York, 2005; Mazlish, B. The New Global History. Routledge, New York, 2006; Zenon Davis, N. What is Universal about History? – Transnationale Geschichte, 15–20; Conrad, S. What is Global History? Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2016; The Prospect of Global History. Ed. by J. Belich, J. Darwin, M. Frenz, C. Wickham. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2016; Bayly, C. et al., On Transnational History; Osterhammel, J. Die Verwandlung; Ballantyne, T., Burton, A. Empires and the Reach of the Global. – A World Connecting, 85–431; Global History, Globally. Research and Practice Around the World. Ed. by S. Beckert, D. Sachsenmaier. Bloomsbury, London, 2018; and, The Practice of Global History: European Perspectives. Ed. by M. Middell. Bloomsbury, London 2019. Tracing the story of global history back into the era following the First World War, see Naumann, K. Laboratorien der Weltgeschichtsschreibung. Lehre und Forschung an den Universitäten Chicago, Columbia und Harvard 1918 bis 1968. (Transnationale Geschichte 7.) Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen, 2019. On Global Cultural History see the special edition ed. by Tamm, M. Global Cultural History. – Cultural History, 2020, 9, 2, 135–264.

32. Werner, B., Zimmermann, B. Vergleich, Transfer, Verflechtung. Der Ansatz der Histoire croisée und die Herausforderung des Transnationalen. – Geschichte und Gesellschaft, 2002, 28, 4, 607–636; and, Ther, P., Comparisons, Cultural Transfers and the Study of Networks: Towards a Transnational History of Europe. – Comparative and Transnational History, 204–225.

33. Geyer, M. Transnational History – The New Consensus. Review on Transnationale Geschichte. Themen, Tendenzen und Theorien. Jürgen Kocka zum 65. Geburtstag. Hrsg. von G. Budde, S. Conrad, O. Janz. Vandenhoek & Ruprecht, Göttingen, 2006. – Forum: Reviewsymposium “Transnationale Geschichte,” H-Soz-u-Kult, 11 October 2006. URL: (last accessed 23 October 2020).

34. This is rightly pointed out in Albert, M., Bluhm, G., Helmig, J., Leutzsch, A., Walter, J. Introduction: The Communicative Construction of Transnational Political Places. – Transnational Political Spaces. Agents – Structures – Encounters. (History of Political Communication, 18.) Ed. by M. Albert, G. Bluhm, J. Helmig, A. Leutzsch, J. Walter. Campus, Frankfurt/New York, 2009, 7–31, quotation: 15.

35. Anderson, B. Imagined Communities. Reflections on the Origins and Spread of Nationalism. Verso, London, 1983; Gellner, E. Nations and Nationalism. Cornell University Press, Ithaca 1983; and, Hroch, M. Social Preconditions of National Revival in Europe. A Comparative Analysis of the Social Composition of Patriotic Groups among the Smaller European Nations. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1985. Hroch’s earlier German-language book on the same topic did not have the same impact, see Hroch, M. Die Vorkämpfer der nationalen Bewegung bei den kleinen Völkern Europas. Eine vergleichende Analyse zur gesellschaftlichen Schichtung der patriotischen Gruppen. Univ. Karlova, Praha, 1968). See also The Invention of Tradition. Ed. by E. Hobsbawm, T. Ranger. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1983.

36. Osterhammel, J. Transnationale Gesellschaftsgeschichte, 474.

37. For a history of the term “transnational law”, see Saunier, P.-Y. Transnational. – The Palgrave Dictionary of Transnational History, 1047–1055; and, Saunier, P.-Y. Learning by Doing: Notes about the Making of the Palgrave Dictionary of Transnational History. – Journal for Modern European History, 2008, 6, 2, 159–180.

38. The term was used in political science in order to indicate usually neglected non-state actors and networks, such as business enterprises. See Nye, J. S., Keohane, R. O. Transnational Relations and World Politics: An Introduction. – International Organization, 1971, 25, 3, 329–349; Kaiser, K. Transnational Politics: Toward a Theory of Multinational Politics. – International Organization, 1971, 25, 3, 790–817; and, Mansbach, R. W., Ferguson, Y. H., Lampert, D. E. The Web of World Politics: Nonstate Actors in the Global System. Prentice-Hall, Eaglewood Cliffs, 1976. For the notion of “transnational law”, see Jessup, P. C. Transnational Law. Yale University Press, New Haven, 1956.

39. Iriye, A. The Internationalization of History. – American Historical Review, 1989, 94, 1, 1–10; Tyrrell, I. American Exceptionalism in an Age of International History. – American Historical Review, 1991, 96, 4, 1031–1055; McGerr, M. The Price of the ‘New Transnational History’. – American Historical Review, 1991, 96, 4, 1056–1067; Geyer, M., Bright, Ch. World History in a Global Age. – American Historical Review, 1995, 100, 4, 1034–1060; Bayly, C. et al. On Transnational History; Tyrrell, I. Reflections on the Transnational Turn in United States History: Theory and Practice. – Journal of Global History, 2009, 4, 4, 453–474. See also the introduction to a special issue Thelen, D. The Nation and Beyond: Transnational Perspectives on United States History. – Journal of American History, 1999, 86, 3, 965–975 (with sections on “Envisioning Transnational History,” “Ways of Writing Transnational History” and “Transformation across Borders”).

40. Raphael, L. Nationalzentrierte Sozialgeschichte in programmatischer Absicht. Die Zeitschrift “Geschichte und Gesellschaft. Zeitschrift für Historische Sozialwissenschaft” in den ersten 25 Jahren ihres Bestehens. – Geschichte und Gesellschaft, 1999, 25, 1, 5–37. On the debate, see Patel, K. K. “Transnations” among “Transnations”? The Debate on Transnational History in the United States and Germany. – American Studies, 2009, 54, 3, 451–472. 

41. In early 1999, the editors of “Geschichte und Gesellschaft” organised a colloquium that resulted in contributions to the debate published in 2001 and 2002. See Osterhammel, J. Transnationale Gesellschaftsgeschichte: Erweiterung oder Alternative? – Geschichte und Gesellschaft, 2001, 27, 3, 464–479; Spiliotis, S.-S. Das Konzept der Transterritorialität oder Wo findet Gesellschaft statt? – Geschichte und Gesellschaft, 2001, 27, 3, 480–488; Wirz, A. Für eine transnationale Gesellschaftsgeschichte. – Geschichte und Gesellschaft, 2001, 27, 3, 489–498; Conrad, S. Doppelte Marginalisierung. Plädoyer für eine transnationale Perspektive auf die deutsche Geschichte. – Geschichte und Gesellschaft, 2002, 28, 1, 145–169; Linden, M. v. d. Vorläufiges zur transkontinentalen Arbeitergeschichte. – Geschichte und Gesellschaft, 2002, 28, 2, 291–304; Werner, B., Zimmermann, B. Vergleich, Transfer, Verflechtung; Krieger, M. “Transnationalität” in vornationaler Zeit? Ein Plädoyer für eine erweiterte Gesellschaftsgeschichte der Frühen Neuzeit. – Geschichte und Gesellschaft, 2004, 30, 1, 125–136; zuvor bereits erschienen; and, Paulmann, J. Internationaler Vergleich und interkultureller Transfer. Zwei Forschungsansätze zur europäischen Geschichte des 18. bis 20. Jahrhunderts. – Historische Zeitschrift, 1998, 267, 3, 649–685. Some of these articles were published later in English in the collected volume Comparative and Transnational History.

42. Le travail et la nation. Histoire croisée de la France et de l’Allemagne. Ed. by B. Zimmermann, C. Didry, M. Wagner. Éd. de la Maison des Sciences de l’Homme, Paris, 1999.

43. Iriye, A. Review: Transnational History. – Contemporary European History, 2004, 13, 2, 211–222, quotation: 211; and, Kasianov, G., Ther, P. Introduction. – A Laboratory of Transnational History: Ukraine and Ukrainian Historiography since 1991. Ed. by G. Kasianov, P. Ther. Central European University Press, Budapest, 2009, 1–4, quotation: 3. Indeed, this term was used to describe a historical phenomenon – socialist reactions to fascism in the 1930s as early as 1996. Horn, G.-R. European Socialists Respond to Fascism: Ideology, Activism and Contingency in the 1930s. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1996, 117–136. See García, H. Transnational History: A New Paradigm for Anti-Fascist Studies? – Contemporary European History, 2016, 25, 4, 563–572, here 564. On early impulses towards a comparative history of totalitarian movements, see Schönpflug, D. Histoires croisées: François Furet, Ernst Nolte and a Comparative History of Totalitarian Movements. – European History Quarterly, 2007, 37, 2, 265–290.

44. Berger, S. Introduction: Towards a Global History of National Historiographies. – Writing the Nation: A Global Perspective. Ed. by S. Berger. Palgrave, London, 2007, 1–29; Berger, S. The Power of National Pasts: Writing National History in Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Europe. – Writing the Nation, 30–62; Iggers, G. G., Wang, E., Mukherjee, S. A Global History of Modern Historiography. Pearson/Longman, Harlow, 2008; The Past as History: National Identity and Historical Consciousness in Modern Europe. Ed. by S. Berger, C. Conrad. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, 2015; Tamm, M. Euroopa rahvuslik ajalookirjutus võrdlevas vaatluses. – Tuna, 2017, 2, 128–138, and, Leerssen, J. Nation and Ethnicity. – The Contested Nation: Ethnicity, Class, Religion and Gender in National Histories. Ed. by S. Berger, C. Lorenz. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, 2008, 75–103. For the broader cultural context, see Encyclopedia of Romantic Nationalism in Europe. 2 vols. Ed. by J. Leerssen, A. H. v. Baal, J. Rock. Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam, 2018.

45. By the way, this is true also in the case of non-dominant imperial nations such as the Ukrainians. See Kappeler, A. From an Ethnonational to a Multiethnic to a Transnational Ukrainian History. – A Laboratory of Transnational History, 51–80. In the case of the history of Russia, not even the authoritative Cambridge History of Russia (3 Vols. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2006) leaves the traditional path of focussing on Russia and the Russians, although some chapters are included that cover the non-Russian territories of the empire. The field for research on the multinational character of the Empire was opened by Kappeler, A. Rußland als Vielvölkerreich. Entstehung, Geschichte, Zerfall. Beck, München, 1992 (trans. as The Russian Empire: A Multiethnic History. Longman, Harlow, 2001).

46. Saunier, P.-Y. Transnational History, 140–141.

47. Meyer, J.-H. Transnationale Geschichte. Eine Perspektive. – Historische Mitteilungen der Ranke-Gesellschaft 2014, 26, 1, 366–382. Similarly, on the limits of Global History, see Conrad, S. What is Global History?, 129–132. 

48. Geyer. M., Transnational History; Ransel, D. L. Reflections on Transnational and World History in the USA and Its Applications. – Historisk Tidskrift (S), 2007, 127, 4, 625–642; and, Jarausch, K. Reflections on Transnational History. – H-German, 20.1.2006. URL: (last accessed 23 October 2020)

49. Bayly, C. A. The Birth of the Modern World, 469.

50. Turner wrote, in 1891, “local history can only be understood in the light of the history of the world”. Turner, F. J. The Significance of History. – Frontier and Section. Selected Essays of Frederick Jackson Turner. Ed. by R. A. Billington, Englewood Cliffs, 1961, 11–28, quotation: 20–21, quot. in Saunier, P.-Y. Transnational History, 1. See also Bloch, M. Pour une histoire comparée des sociétés europeénnes. – Revue de synthèse historique, 1928, 46, 15–50.

51. Bayly, C. A. History and World History, 13; Middell, M., Roura, L. The Various Forms of Transcending the Horizon of National History Writing. – Transnational Challenges, 1–35, quotation: 10.

52. Ittersum, M. v., Jacobs, J. Are We All Global Historians Now? An Interview with David Armitage. – Itinerario, 2012, 3, 2, 7–28, quotation: 16; Ghobrial, J.-P. A. Introduction: Seeing the World like a Microhistorian, 3.

53. Iriye, A. Global and Transnational History, 15. See also Tyrrell, I. Reflections on the Transnational Turn in United States History: Theory and Practice. – Journal of Global History, 2009, 4, 3, 453–474.

54. Geyer, M. Transnational History.

55. Clavin, P. Defining Transnationalism. – Contemporary European History, 2005, 14, 4, 421–439, quotation: 431.

56. Rüger, J. OXO: Or, the Challenges of Transnational History. – European History Quarterly, 210, 40, 4, 656–668, quotation: 663.

57. Middell, M., Naumann, K. Global History and the Spatial Turn. From the Impact of Area Studies to the Study of Critical Junctures of Globalization. – Journal of Global History, 2010, 5, 1, 149–170, quotation: 159–160.

58. Patel, K. K. An Emperor without Clothes?

59. Verdery, K. Beyond the Nation in Eastern Europe. – Social Text, 1994, 38, 1, 1–19, here 5;
Conrad, C. Vergleich und Transnationalität. – Oldenbourg Geschichte Lehrbuch. Neueste Zeit. Hrsg. von A. Wirsching, Oldenbourg Verlag, München, 2006, 317–332, quotation: 330; and, Albert, M., Bluhm, G., Helmig, J., Leutzsch, A., Walter, J. Introduction, 13. On Estonian nationalism, see Petersoo, P. Reconsidering Otherness: Constructing Estonian Identity. – Nations and Nationalism, 2010, 13, 1, 117–133.

60. On the term, see Zahra, T. Imagined Noncommunities: National Indifference as a Category of Analysis. – Slavic Review, 2010, 69, 1, 93–119. On the stimulating debate on the Germans of the Baltic provinces of the Russian Empire and the Baltic states until World War II, see Baltic German Perceptions of Belonging in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Century (Special Issue). Ed. by K. Wezel, S. Donecker. – Journal of Baltic Studies, 2017, 48, 1, 1–98;
and, Brüggemann, K., Wezel, K. Nationally Indifferent or Ardent Nationalists? On the Options for Being German in Russia’s Baltic Provinces, 1905–17. – Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History, 2019, 20, 1, 39–62.

61. Deacon, D., Russel, P., Woollacott, A. Introduction. – Transnational Lives. Biographies of Global Modernity, 1700 – present. Ed. by D. Deacon, P. Russel, A. Woollacott. Palgrave Macmillan, Houndmills, 2010, 1–11, quotation: 2;
Amelang, J. S. Transcultural Autobiography, or The Lives of Others. – Selbstzeugnis und Person. Transkulturelle Perspektiven. Ed. by C. Ulbrich, H. Medick, A. Schaser. (Selbstzeugnisse der Neuzeit, 20.) Böhlau, Cologne, 2012, 77–85; and, Cott, N. F., Tuck, S., Allman, J., Pratt Guterl, M. AHR Forum: Transnational Lives in the Twentieth Century. – American Historical Review 2013, 118, 1, 45–139. For a selection of intellectual biographies of Catholic Enlightenment figures in eighteenth-century Europe, see Enlightenment and Catholicism in Europe. A Transnational History. Ed. by J. D. Burson, U. L. Lehner. University of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame, 2014. From the perspective of social movements, see The Transnational Activist: Transformations and Comparisons from the Anglo-World since the Nineteenth Century. Ed. by S. Berger, S. Scalmer. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham, 2018. For a sociological perspective, see Davis, K. From Transnational Biographies to Transnational Cultural Spaces. – Handbuch Biographieforschung. Ed. by H. Lutz, M. Schniebel, E. Tuider. Springer, Wiesbaden, 2018, 663–672.

62. Midgley, C., Twells, A., Carlier, J. Introduction. – Women in Transnational History: Connecting the Local and the Global. Ed. by C. Midgley, A. Twells, J. Carlier. Routledge, London, 2016, 1–10, quotation: 4–5. See also Politische Netzwerkerinnen. Internationale Zusammenarbeit von Frauen, 1830–1960. Hrsg. von E. Schöck-Quinteros. (Schriftenreihe des Hedwig-Hintze-Instituts Bremen, 10.) Trafo-Verlag, Berlin, 2007; and, Women and Transnational Activism in Historical Perspective. Ed. by K. Jensen, E. Kuhlmann. Republic of Letters Publishing, Dordrecht, 2010; Women’s Activism and ‘Second Wave’ Feminism: Transnational Histories. Ed. by B. Molony, J. Nelson. Bloomsbury, London 2017.

63. Eliten im Vielvölkerreich. Imperiale Biographien in Russland und Österreich-Ungarn (1850–1918). Hrsg. von T. Buchen, M. Rolf. (Elitenwandel in der Moderne, 17). De Gruyter Oldenbourg, Berlin et al., 2015; Imperial Subjects. Autobiographische Praxis in den Vielvölkerreichen der Romanovs, Habsburger und Osmanen im 19. und frühen 20. Jahrhundert. Hrsg. von M. Aust, F. B. Schenk. (Imperial Subjects. Autobiographik und Biographik im imperialen Kontext, 1). Böhlau, Cologne, 2015; and, Nach dem Zerfall der Imperien: Historische Zäsur und biografische Erfahrung im östlichen Europa. After the Fall of Empires: Historical Turning Points and Biographical Experience in Eastern Europe. Hrsg. von K. Steffen. (Nordost-Archiv. Zeitschrift für Regionalgeschichte 23 [2014]). Lüneburg 2015.

64. Burbank, J., Cooper, F. Empires in World History: Power and the Politics of Difference. Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2010, 3; The Oxford World History of Empire. 2 vols. Ed. by P. Fibiger Bang, C. A. Bayly, W. Scheidel. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2020; and, Osterhammel, J. Imperien. – Transnationale Geschichte, 56–67. On imperial Russia, see Weeks, T. R. Managing Empire: Tsarist Nationalities Policy. – Cambridge History of Russia. Vol. 2: Imperial Russia, 1689–1917. Ed. by D. Lieven. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2006, 27–44; and, Миллер, А. И. Империя Романовых и национализм. Эссе по методологии исторического исследования. Новое Литературное Обозрение, Mocквa, 2006; Imperium inter pares: Роль трансферов в истории Российской империи (1700–1917). Отв. ред. М. Ауст, Р. Вульпиус, А. И. Миллер. Новое Литературное Обозрение, Mocквa, 2010.

65. See, for example, the definition by Pries, L. Die Transnationalisierung der sozialen Welt. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt 2007, 16: transnational relations may encompass state actors, but they necessarily include non-state actors.

66. The History of the European Union: Origins of a Trans- and Supranational Polity 1950–72. Ed. by W. Kaiser, M. Rasmussen, B. Leucht. Routledge, Abingdon, 2009; and Meyer, J.-H. Transnationale Geschichte. 

67. Greiner, C., Sakdapolrak, P. Translocality: Concepts, Applications and Emerging Research Perspectives. – Geography Compass, 2013, 7, 5, 373–384. “Transregional” is named as another alternative to make it less normative. Conrad, S. What Is Global History?, 47–48.

68. Bayly, C. et al., On Transnational History, 1446; and, Struck, B., Ferris, K., Level, J. Introduction, 576. At least in the German context, the category of space was powerfully revived, with a particular focus on Eastern Europe, by Schlögel, K. Im Raume lesen wir die Zeit. Über Zivilisationsgeschichte und Geopolitik. Hanser, Munich, 2003.

69. Struck, B., Ferris, K., Level, J. Introduction, 574, 576; and, Whelehan, N. Playing with Scales, 9. 

70. Rüger, J. OXO, 660. See De Vries, J. Playing with Scales: The Global and the Micro, the Macro and the Nano. – Past & Present, 2019, 242, Issue Supplement 14: Global History and Microhistory, 23–36; and, the pledge for a “micro-spatial” approach to combine the virtues of the global and the micro levels in De Vito, C. G. History Without Scale: The Micro-Spatial Perspective. – ibid., 348–372.

71. Saunier, P.-Y. Transnational History, 68–69.

72. “But in principle, any subject will do for a global biography.” Conrad, S. What Is Global History, 7.

73. Struck, B., Ferris, K., Level, J. Introduction, 577; for the examples of sugar and cotton see Mintz, S. W. Sweetness and Power: The Place of Sugar in Modern History. Viking, New York, 1985; Riello, G. Cotton: The Fabric that Made the Modern World. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2013; and, Beckert, S. Empire of Cotton. A Global History, Knopf, New York, 2014.

74. Hirschi, C. The Origins of Nationalism: An Alternative History from Ancient Rome to Early Modern Germany. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2012.

75. Yun-Casalilla, B. ‘Localism’, Global History and Transnational History: A Reflection from the Historian of Early Modern Europe. – Historisk Tidskrift (S), 2007, 127, 4, 659–678; Yun-Casalilla, B. Transnational History: What Lies behind the Label? Some Reflections from the Early Modernist’s Point of View. – Culture & History Digital Journal, 2014, 3, 2, see the URL: (last accessed 7 December 2020); 
and, Duindam, J. Early Modern Europe: Beyond the Strictures of Modernization and National Historiography. – European History Quarterly, 2010, 40, 4, 606–623.

76. Borgolte, M. Migrationen als transkulturelle Verflechtungen im mittelalterlichen Europa. Ein neuer Pflug für alte Forschungsfelder. – Historische Zeitschrift, 2009, 289, 2, 261–285; Kaiser, W. Transnationale Weltgeschichte im Zeichen der Globalisierung. – Geschichte der internationalen Beziehungen. Erneuerung und Erweiterung einer historischen Disziplin. Hrsg. von E. Conze, U. Lappenküper, G. Müller. Böhlau, Cologne, 2004, 65–92; here 66; cf. Meyer, J.-H., Transnationale Geschichte; Iriye, A. The Making of a Transnational World. – Global Interdependence, 682; and, Gassert, P. Transnationale Geschichte, Version: 2.0. – Docupedia-Zeitgeschichte, 29.10.2012 
(URL: _Version_2.0_Philipp_Gassert, 4.11.2020), 3.

77. Duindam, J. Early Modern Europe, 615.

78. Forum: Globalizing Early Modern German History. – German History, 2013, 31, 3, 366–382, quotation 367.

79. Holmes, C., Standen, N. Introduction: Towards a Global Middle Ages. – Past & Present, 2018, 238, Issue supplement 13: The Global Middle Ages, 1–44, quotation 1.

80. Ittersum, M. v., Jacobs, J. Are We All Global Historians Now?, 16.

81. Patel, K. K. Transnationale Geschichte. – Europäische Geschichte Online (EGO). Hrsg. vom Institut für Europäische Geschichte (IEG), Mainz (12.03.2010). URL: (23.10.2020);
and, Oschema, K. Der Europa-Begriff im Hoch- und Spätmittelalter. Zwischen geographischem Weltbild und kultureller Konnotation. – Jahrbuch für europäische Geschichte, 2001, 2, 191–235;
Contesting Europe. Comparative Perspectives on Early Modern Discourses on Europe (1400–1800). Ed. by N. Detering, C. Marsico, I. Walter-Bürgler. Brill, Leiden, 2020.

82. Levitt, P., Jaworsky, B. N. Transnational Migration Studies: Past Developments and Future Trends. – Annual Review of Sociology, 2007, 33, 129–56, here 131; Glick Schiller, N., Basch, L. Theorizing Transnational Migration. – Anthropological Quarterly, 1995, 68, 1, 48–63; Fouron, G., Glick Schiller, N. All in the Family: Gender, Transnational Migration, and the Nation‐State. – Identities. Global Studies in Culture and Power, 2001, 7, 4, 539–582; and, Lionnet, F., Shumei, S. Introduction. – Minor Transnationalism. Ed. by F. Lionnet, S. Shumei. Duke University Press, Durham, 2005, 1–26; A Century of Transnationalism: Immigrants and Their Homeland Connections. Ed. by N. L. Green, R. Waldinger. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 2016. See a recent University of Tartu dissertation in Media and Communication Studies: Leppik, M. The Segmented Integration and Mediated Transnationalism of Estonian Russian-Speaking Populations. (Dissertationes de mediis et communicationibus Universitatis Tartuensis, 40.) University of Tartu Press, Tartu, 2020.

83. Meyer, J.-H., Transnationale Geschichte; Bayly, C. A. et al. On Transnational History, 1460, 1462; Borgolte, M. Migrationen als transkulturelle Verflechtungen; Jürgenson, A. Assimilatsionistidest transnatsionalistideni – rände ja integratsiooni uurimine 20. ja 21. sajandil. – Tuna, 2016, 2, 91–105; Harders, L. Migration und Biographie. Mobile Leben beschreiben. – Österreichische Zeitschrift für Geschichtswissenschaften, 2018, 29, 3, 17–36; and, Ghobrial, J.-P. A. Moving Stories and What They Tell Us: Early Modern Mobility Between Microhistory and Global History. – Past & Present, 2019, 242, Issue Supplement 14: Global History and Microhistory, 243–228.

84. Kastoryano, R. Transnational Nationalism: Redefining Nation and Territory. – Identities, Affiliations and Allegiances. Ed. by S. Benhabib, I. Shapiro, D. Petranović. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2007, 159–178.

85. Patel, K. K. Transnationale Geschichte; Ther, P., Comparisons; and, Clavin, P. Time, Manner, Place: Writing Modern European History in Global, Transnational and International Contexts. – European History Quarterly, 2010, 40, 4, 624–640.

86. Ittersum, M. v., Jacobs, J. Are We All Global Historians Now?, 17.

87. Patel, K. K. An Emperor without Clothes?

88. Verdery, K. Beyond the Nation in Eastern Europe, 4. Cf. on Eastern Europe specifically the approaches in Comparativ, 2008, 18, 2: Ostmitteleuropa transnational. Hrsg. von P. Haslinger; and Hadler, F., Middell, M. Transnationalisierung in Ostmitteleuropa bis zum Ersten Weltkrieg. – Handbuch einer transnationalen Geschichte Ostmitteleuropas. Bd. 1: Von der Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts bis zum Ersten Weltkrieg. Hrsg. von F. Hadler, M. Middell. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen, 2017. Interestingly enough, the terminological difference explained by Verdery is not even mentioned here. See also New Perspectives in Transnational History of Communism in East Central Europe. (Dia-Logos, 26.) Ed. by K. Brzechczyn. Lang, Berlin, 2019.

89. Some examples of the use of the term in historical research (in the widest sense) include Plath, U. Kadunud kuldne kese. Kuus pilti Eesti ajaloost rahvusüleses kollaažis. – Vikerkaar, 2009, 7–8, 91–98; Brüggemann, K. Mis teeb Eesti ajaloo ülejäänud maailmale huvitavaks? – Sirp, 17 October 2010; Karjahärm, T. Eesti ajalugu: kas huvitav ainult näidisjuhtumina? – Sirp, 15 October 2010; Laanes, E. Wie es gewesen sein mag. – Keel ja Kirjandus, 2012, 9, 123–128; Jürgenson, A. Assimilatsionistidest transnatsionalistideni; Kaljundi, L. Mis on rahvusülene ajalugu? Intervjuu Karsten Brüggemanni ja Ulrike Plathiga, Saksa päritolu ajaloolastega, kes töötavad juba pikemat aega Eestis. – Sirp, 19.8.2016; Kaljundi, L., Plath, U. Eesti ajalookirjutus põimitud perspektiivist. – Tuna, 2017, 1, 2–6; Laanes, E. Trauma keelde tõlgitud: kultuurideülesed mäluvormid eesti küüditamis- ja laagrimälestustes. – Keel ja Kirjandus, 2017, 4, 241–257; Kaljundi, L., Kreem, T.-M. Ajalugu pildis – pilt ajaloos. Rahvuslik ja rahvusülene minevik eesti kunstis = History in Images – Image in History. National and Transnational Past in Estonian Art. Eesti Kunstimuuseum, Tallinn, 2018; and, Special Issue: Entangled Cultures in the Baltic Region. Ed. by E. Laanes. – Journal of Baltic Studies, 2020, 51, 3. See also the early debate between the literary scholar Jaan Undusk and the author of this article where Undusk’s term “maiskondlik ajalugu”, a kind of supra-national perspective for writing Estonian history, was criticised first and foremost in terms of unintended consequences: Undusk, J. Ajalootõde ja metahistoorilised žestid. Eesti ajaloo mitmest moraalist. – Tuna, 2000, 2, 114–130; Brüggemann, K. Rahvusliku vaenlasekuju demontaažist ehk Carl Schirren kui Eesti iseseisvuse rajaja? Märkusi Jaan Unduski “metahistooriliste žestide” kohta. – Tuna, 2002, 3, 93–98; and, Undusk, J. Eesti ajaloo kotkaperspektiivist. Minu vaidlus Brüggemanniga. – Tuna, 2002, 3, 99–116.

90. For an inspiring proposal on Ukraine, see Kappeler, A. From an Ethnonational to a Multiethnic to a Transnational Ukrainian History, 67.

91. Pietrow-Ennker, B. Einleitung: Konzept, Themen und Forschungsstrategien. – Russlands imperiale Macht. Integrationsstrategien und ihre Reichweite in transnationaler Perspektive. Hrsg. von B. Pietrow-Ennker. Böhlau, Cologne et al., 2012, 9–34, quotation: 9–10; Rosenberg, E. S. Transnational Currents in a Shrinking World. – A World Connecting, 813–996, quotation: 819–820; and, Pratt, M. L. Imperial Eyes: Travel Writing and Transculturation. 2nd ed. Routledge, New York, 2008.

92. Livland – eine Region am Ende der Welt? Forschungen zum Verhältnis zwischen Zentrum und Peripherie im späten Mittelalter = Livonia – a Region at the End of the World? Studies on the Relations between Centre and Periphery in the Later Middle Ages. Hrsg. von A. Selart, M. Thumser. (Quellen und Studien zur baltischen Geschichte, 27.) Böhlau, Cologne, 2017; Making Livonia: Actors and Networks in the Medieval and Early Modern Baltic Sea Region. Ed. by A. Mänd, M. Tamm. Routledge, London, 2020.

93. To various degrees, the dangers and potentials of studying the local in the multicultural cities of the Baltic provinces of the Russian Empire are shown in Woodworth, B. D. Civil Society and Nationality in the Multiethnic Russian Empire: Tallinn/Reval 1860–1914. PhD diss., Indiana University, 2003; Hirschhausen, U. v. Die Grenzen der Gemeinsamkeit: Deutsche, Letten, Russen und Juden in Riga 1860–1914. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen, 2006. See also my attempt at a transnational approach, Брюггеманн, К. Города имперских и национальных утопий: транснациональный взгляд на Ригу и Таллин, 1914–1924. – Города империи в годы Великой войны и революции. Отв. ред. А. Миллер, Д. Черный. Нестор, Санкт-Петербург. 2017, 100–139.

94. See, among others, Gassert, P. Transnationale Geschichte, 3. For transnational research within the boundaries of the Hapsburg Empire, see Handbuch einer transnationalen Geschichte Ostmitteleuropas. 

95. Siegelbaum, L. H., Moch, L. P. Transnationalism in One Country? Seeing and Not Seeing Cross-Border Migration within the Soviet Union. – Slavic Review, 2016, 75, 4, 970–986; and, Siegelbaum, L. H., Moch, L. P. Broad is my Native Land: Repertoires and Regimes of Migration in Russia’s Twentieth Century. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 2014.

96. That the USSR was a “state of nations” has been widely accepted since the publication of the volume A State of Nations: Empire and Nation-Making in the Age of Lenin and Stalin. Ed. by R. G. Suny, T. Martin. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2001. 

97. Siegelbaum, L. H., Moch, L. P. Transnationalism in One Country?, 973. Indeed, in 2011 Michael David-Fox quite enthusiastically characterised the potential of transnational history for research on the USSR: “The first is the centrality of not just goods and people crossing actual borders but the way ‘really-existing’ exchanges were caught up with ideas and ideologies about the outside world, which deeply affected successive openings and closings; the second is the way those contacts, especially across the semipermeable membrane erected with the outside world in the Soviet period, illuminate the nexus between the Soviet system’s external and internal dimensions.” Interestingly, he did not mention crossing the internal borders of the Soviet national republics once. David-Fox, M. The Implications of Transnationalism, 904; see also David-Fox, M. The Iron Curtain as Semi-Permeable Membrane: The Origins and Demise of the Stalinist Superiority Complex. – Cold War Crossings: International Travel and Exchange across the Soviet Bloc, 1940s–1960s. Ed. by P. Babiracki, K. Zimmer. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, 2014, 14–39.

98. Florin, M., Zeller, M. Soviet Transnationalism: Urban Milieus, Deterritorialization, and People’s Friendship in the Late Soviet Union. – Ab Imperio, 2018, 4, 131–146, quotation 134–135.

99. Brüggemann, K., Woodworth, B. Entangled Pasts – Russia and the Baltic Region. – Russland an der Ostsee. Imperiale Strategien der Macht und kulturelle Wahrnehmungsmuster (16. bis 20. Jahrhundert) = Russia on the Baltic: Imperial Strategies of Power and Cultural Patterns of Perception (16th–20th Centuries). Ed. by K. Brüggemann, B. Woodworth. (Quellen und Studien zur baltischen Geschichte, 22.) Böhlau, Cologne et al., 2012, 3–26.

100. As an example, see Huang, A. Die Textilien des Hanseraums. Produktion und Distribution einer spätmittelalterlichen Fernhandelsware. (Quellen und Studien zur hansischen Geschichte, 71.) Böhlau, Cologne, 2015.

101. On this differentiation, see Dolbilov, M. Russification and the Bureaucratic Mind in the Russian Empire’s Northwestern Region in the 1860s. – Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History, 2004, 5, 2, 245–271; and, as it was applied to the Baltic provinces, Brüggemann, K. Licht und Luft des Imperiums. Legitimations- und Repräsentationsstrategien russischer Herrschaft in den Ostseeprovinzen im 19. und frühen 20. Jahrhundert. (Veröffentlichungen des Nordost-Instituts, 21.) Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden, 2018.

102. On the “Estonification” of officials in the Baltic provinces, see Woodworth, B. D. Patterns of Civil Society in a Modernizing Multiethnic City: A German Town in the Russian Empire Becomes Estonian. – Ab Imperio, 2006, 7, 2, 135–162; Woodworth, B. D. Paljurahvuselisus ja eestlastest riigiametnikud Eestimaa kubermangus aastatel 1870–1914. – Vene aeg Eestis. Uurimusi 16. sajandi keskpaigast kuni 20. sajandi alguseni. Koost T. Tannberg. (Eesti Ajalooarhiivi toimetised 14 [21].) Eesti Ajalooarhiiv, Tartu, 2006, 345–360; Миллер, А. И. Империя Романовых, 63–64; Karjahärm, T. Aleksei Miller ja “uus impeeriumi ajalugu”. – Tuna, 2011, 3, 136–141; Karjahärm, T. Vene impeerium ja rahvuslus. Moderniseerimise strateegiad. Argo, Tallinn, 2012, 153–162; and, Brüggemann, K. Der imperial turn in Estland: Anmerkungen zu Toomas Karjahärms “Das Russische Imperium und der Nationalismus”. – Forschungen zur baltischen Geschichte, 2013, 8, 228–235. 

103. See Brüggemann, K. Yearning for Social Change: The Russian Revolution in the Baltic Provinces. – Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism, 2017, 17, 3, 358–368;
and, Brüggemann, K. Learning from Estonia Means Learning to Be Victorious? Estonia between the Legacy of the February Revolution and Nikolai Iudenich’s Northwestern Army. – The Global Impacts of Russia’s Great War and Revolution, Book 1: The Arc of Revolution, 1917–24. Ed. by A. Marshall, J. W. Steinberg, S. Sabol. Slavica, Bloomington, 2019, 99–129.

104. Newby, A. N., Myllyntaus, T. ‘The Terrible Visitation’: Famine in Finland and Ireland, 1945 to 1868. Towards an Agenda for Comparative Irish-Finnish Famine Studies. – Famines in European Economic History. The Last Great European Famines Reconsidered. Ed. by D. Curran. (Routledge Explorations in Economic History, 71.) Routledge, London et al., 2015, 145–165; and, Lust, K. The Question of Moral Economy and Famine Relief in the Russian Baltic Provinces of Estland and Livland, 1841–69. – Collegium: Studies across Disciplines in the Humanities and Social Sciences, 2017, 22, 46–66.

105. Wezel, K. Transcending Boundaries: Riga’s Baltic German Entrepreneurs in an Era of Nationalism, Revolution, and War. – Journal of Baltic Studies, 2017, 48, 1: Baltic German Perceptions of Belonging in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Century, 39–54; Feest, D. Spaces of ‘National Indifference’ in Biographical Research on Citizens of the Baltic Republics 1918–1940. – Journal of Baltic Studies, 2017, 48, 1: Baltic German Perceptions of Belonging in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Century, 55–66; and, Feest, D. Klaus Scheel, Estlands ungekrönter König. Eine biografische Skizze. – Individuum und Gesellschaft in Ost- und Nordosteuropa. Hrsg. von J. Tauber. Nordost-Institut, Lüneburg, 2017. URL: (last accessed 17 December 2020).

106. Talvoja, K. (Re)nationalizing Estonian Art During the Thaw: Lively Legacy of Kristjan Raud. – A Socialist Realist History? Writing Art History in the Post-War Decades. Ed. by K. Kodres, K. Jõekalda. (Das östliche Europa. Kunst- und Kulturgeschichte, 9.) Böhlau, Cologne, 2018, 170–199.

107. Studies on transnational literary relations in the case of the Lithuanian SSR have been already published. See Ivanauskas, V. Įrėminta tapatybė. Lietuvos rašytojai tautų draugystės imperijoje. Lietuvos istorijos instituto leidykla, Vilnius, 2015. In general, see Dobrenko, E. Soviet Multinational Literature: Approaches, Problems, and Perspectives of Study. – The Literary Field under Communist Rule. Ed. by A. Jurgutienė, D. Satkauskytė. Academic Studies Press, Boston, 2018, 3–17. On joint curricula between the Tallinn and Kaunas Polytechnical Institutes, see Graf, M. Rahvuskommunistid. Enn-Arno Sillari ja teised. Argo, Tallinn, 2020, 14–15.

108. With a focus on the Estonian audience: Reimann, H. Jaak Joala – ‘Kremlin Nightingale’ or Estonian Ccelebrity? – Celebrity Studies, 2020, 11 1, 149–152.

109. Abeßer, M. Progressiv weil national? Estland und die Neuerfindung des sowjetischen Jazz zwischen 1953 und 1970. – Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas, 2019, 67, 3, 424–446. See Reimann, H. Eesti nõukogudeaegse kultuuri tähendusväljadest hilisstalinismiaegse džässiajaloo näitel. – Acta Historica Tallinnensia, 2016, 22, 89–111.

110. Iriye, A. The Making of a Transnational World, 682.

111. Selart, A., Mänd, A. Livonia – a Region without Local Saints? – Symbolic Identity and the Cultural Memory of Saints. Ed. by N. H. Petersen, A. Mänd, S. Salvadó, T. R. Sands. Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcastle upon Tyne, 2018, 91–122.

112. Põldvee, A. Die langsame Reformation: Luthertum, Schrifttum und die estnischen Bauern im 16.–17. Jahrhundert. – Wandel und Anpassung in der Geschichte Estlands. 16.–20. Jahrhundert. Ed. by K. Brüggemann. (Nordost-Archiv: Zeitschrift für Regionalgeschichte, XXII/2013.) Nordost-Institut, Lüneburg, 2014, 56–88; Põldvee, A. 17th Century Estonian Orthography Reform, the Teaching of Reading and the History of Ideas. – Trames: Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences, 2011, 15, 4, 365–384.

113. See, among other works, his monographs: Jürgenson, A. Siberiga seotud. Eestlased teisel pool Uuraleid. Argo, Tallinn, 2006; and, Jürgenson, A. Ladina rahva seas. Argentina ja sealsed eestlased. Argo, Tallinn, 2011.

114. For the Estonian case, see Made, V. Külalisena maailmapoliitikas. Eesti ja Rahvasteliit 1919–1946. Tartu Ülikooli Kirjastus, Tartu, 1999. 

115. Clavin, P., Wessel, J. W. Transnationalism and the League of Nations: Understanding the Work of Its Economic and Financial Organisation. –Contemporary European History, 2005, 14, 4, 465–492, quotation 466–467.

116. Studer, B. Die Komintern. Herrschaftspraktiken, Machtmechanismen, kollektive und individuelle Handlungsspielräume. – Russlands imperiale Macht, 229–257, quotation: 229–230; Studer, B. The Transnational World of the Cominternians. Palgrave Macmillan, Houndmills, 2015; Studer, B. Reisende der Weltrevolution. Eine Globalgeschichte der Kommunistischen Internationale. Suhrkamp, Berlin, 2020.

117. The latest research (without specific connection to the Baltic states) includes The Internationalisation of the Labour Question: Ideological Antagonism, Workers’ Movements and the ILO since 1919. Ed. by S. Bellucci, H. Weiss. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham, 2020; Women’s ILO: Transnational Networks, Global Labour Standards and Gender Equity, 1919 to Present. Ed. by E. Boris, D. Hoehtker, S. Zimmermann. (Studies in Global Social History, 32.) Brill, Leiden/Boston, 2018; and, Globalizing Social Rights: The International Labour Organization and Beyond. Ed. by S. Kott, J. Droux. Palgrave Macmillan, Houndmills, 2013.

118. See the introduction of the special issue Patel, K. K., Reichardt, S. Introduction: The Dark Side of Transnationalism: Social Engineering and Nazism, 1930s-40s. – Journal of Contemporary History, 2016, 51, 1, 3–21.

119. Quoted in Tarand, A. The Soviet Period. – Estonia: Identity and Independence. Ed. by. J.-J. Subrenat (On the Boundary of Two Worlds, 2.) Rodopi, Amsterdam, 2004, 137–152, here 142; Vesilind, P. Eestlane igas sadamas. Varrak, Tallinn, 2004, 12. On the conflicting and conflating identities of Estonians between the role model of the patriotic ‘peasant’ and the cosmopolitan ‘sailor’ see Brüggemann, K. The Eastern Sea is a Western Sea: Some Reflections on Estonia as a Baltic Sea Country. – The Baltic as a Multicultural World: Sea, Region and Peoples. (The Baltic Sea Region: Nordic Dimensions – European Perspectives, 4.) Ed. by M. Lehti. Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag, Berlin, 2005, 59–79.

120. Pullat, R., Pullat, R. Viinameri. Salapiiritusevedu Läänemerel kahe sõja vahel. Estopol, Tallinn, 2010.

121. Mitter, A. Rum Runners of the Baltic – The Rise of Transnational Liquor Smuggling Networks in Interwar Europe. – Zeitschrift für Ostmitteleuropa-Forschung, 2019, 68, 4, 527–550, quotation 544.

122. Kaljundi, L. Challenging Expansions. Estonian Viking Novels and the Politics of Memory in the 1930s. –Novels, Histories, and Novel Nations: Historical Fiction and Cultural Memory in Finland and Estonia. (Studia Fennica, 19.) Ed. by L. Kaljundi, E. Laanes, I. Pikkanen. Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, Helsinki, 182−207.

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