Aune Valk, Kristel Karu
University of Tartu, University of Jerusalem
Abstract. Quantitative and qualitative data from three generations of resident and emigrant Estonians showed that the meaning of ethnic identity varied considerably among people with equally strong ethnic pride and feeling of belonging. The two different groups who have lived apart for more than half a century described differently the target of their attachment, the group they belong to, the fellow ethnic group members, Estonian history, etc. The differences probably stemmed first of all from the mono- or bicultural nature of identity respectively among resident and emigrant respondents, different definitions of the ethnic in-group and different salient out-groups. In addition to variations across the contexts, the identification of three generations were compared to each other: younger people showed weaker ethnic pride and attachment compared to older generations.
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