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Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences

ISSN 1736-7530 (electronic)   ISSN 1736-6046 (print)
Formerly: Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences, series Physics & Mathematics and  Chemistry
Published since 1952

Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences

ISSN 1736-7530 (electronic)   ISSN 1736-6046 (print)
Formerly: Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences, series Physics & Mathematics and  Chemistry
Published since 1952
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A perpetual mass-generating Planckian universe; pp. 1–12

(Full article in PDF format) https://doi.org/10.3176/proc.2019.1.01


Authors

Arved Sapar

Abstract

The local Friedmann–Einstein equation of general relativity for model universes is generalized, in the spirit of Mach’s principle, to an integro-differential equation by introducing the gravitational potential of the universe. This equation is thereafter integrated, and a useful differential equation is obtained, which in the flat space can equivalently be treated by special relativity. An important formula is proposed, which demonstrates that the light speed squared, c2, is equal to the gravitational potential. In this model universe the critical density of matter turns out to be three times smaller than traditionally obtained, thus removing the necessity of dark energy. The evolutionary scenario of the flat-space universe replaces the concept of the traditional Big Bang universe by a steady Milne-type everlasting mass-generating universe. In it not only the initial state of the universe, but also its evolutionary scenario is determined by four fundamental constants of physics, which specify also the light speed as the dilution rate and the constant Planckian mass generation rate, = c3/6G. The observed value of the inverse Hubble parameter is the current age of the universe to the observer. Moreover, due to the constancy of the gravitational potential, the model avoids primordial inflationary expansion of the universe and anthropocentrism of the present epoch in its evolutionary scenario. Simple formulae are derived, which demonstrate that the primordial nucleogenesis of light atoms and the formation of the cosmic microwawe background occur at an almost identical temporal run of temperature and density for any reasonable value of the state parameter n of the model universe studied. The evolutionary differences can appear for a LCDM model universe only at redshift values less than one.

Keywords

cosmology, model universes, Mach’s principle, dark energy, dark matter.

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Current Issue: Vol. 68, Issue 1, 2019




Publishing schedule:
No. 1: 20 March
No. 2: 20 June
No. 3: 20 September
No. 4: 20 December