headerpos: 9509
 
 
  Trames
A Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences

ISSN 1736-7514 (electronic)  ISSN 1406-0922 (print)
Published since 1997

Trames
A Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences

ISSN 1736-7514 (electronic)  ISSN 1406-0922 (print)
Published since 1997

Publisher
Information
» Policy statement
» Editorial board
» Editorial programme
Article Publication Charges
Style sheet
Subscription Information
Support and Contact
List of Issues
» 2018
Vol. 22, Issue 3
Vol. 22, Issue 2
Vol. 22, Issue 1
» 2017
» 2016
» 2015
» 2014
» 2013
» 2012
» 2011
» 2010
» 2009
» 2008
» Back Issues
» Back issues (full texts)
  in Google
Publisher
» Other journals
» Staff

ESTONIA-SOUTHERN FINLAND CROSS-BORDER REGION:WHAT KIND OF CROSS-BORDER INTEGRATION IS TAKING PLACE? AN ANALYSIS FROM EXPERTS IN CROSS-BORDER COOPERATION; pp. 185–209

(Full article in PDF format) https://doi.org/10.3176/tr.2018.2.06


Authors

Teresa González-Gómez

Abstract

Since the emergence of the first European community initiatives in the form of Interreg (European Territorial Cooperation), cross-border regions have become laboratories of European integration. There is extensive empirical research on the evolution of cross-border cooperation and how cross-border regions are constructed. Also, in the last two decades a more social and day-to-day approach in the study of these cross-border regions has gained attention, putting forward a more bottom-up focus to complement institutional analysis, since European cross-border cooperation evolves through both formal and in­formal processes developing interrelatedly. In this paper we adopt a social capital approach to analyse how cross-border integration is constructed among experts involved in institu­tional cooperation in the border region of Southern Finland and Estonia. Using mixed methodology based on semi-structured interviews and social network analysis, our find­ings reflect different patterns of border behaviour, all of which have significant value as opportunities for greater European integration.

Keywords

cross-border cooperation, social capital, social network analysis, European integration, Estonia, Southern-Finland

References

Alapuru , Risto and Lonkila , Markku (2004) “Russians’ and Estonians’ networks in a Tallinn factory”. In Risto Alapuru , Ilkka Liikanen , and Markku Lonkila , ed. Beyond post-Soviet transi­tions: micro perspectives on challenge and survival in Russia and Estonia , 101–127 , Saarijärvi: Gummerus Printing.

Amante , Maria (2013) “Recovering the paradox of the border: identity and (un)familiarity across the Portuguese–Spanish border”. European Planning Studies 21 , 1 , 24–41.
https://doi.org/10.1080/09654313.2012.716237

Berg , Eiki (2000) “Border crossing in manifest perceptions and actual needs”. In M. Van Der Veld , and Henk Van Houtum , eds. Border , regions and people , 151–165 , London: Pion Limited.

Berg , Eiki (2002) “Local resistance , national identity and global swings in post-Soviet Estonia”. Europe-Asia Studies 54 , 1 , 109–122.
https://doi.org/10.1080/09668130120098269

Blomberg , Jaakko and Gunnar Okk (2008). Opportunities for cooperation between Finland and Estonia. Finland: Prime Minister Publications.

Borgatti , Stephen. P. , Martin. G. Everett , and L. C. Freeman (2002) Ucinet 6 for Windows. Harvard , MA: Analytic Technologies.

Brym , Michelle (2011) “The enduring importance of national identity in cooperative European Union Borderlands: Polish university students’ perceptions on cross-border cooperation in the Pomerania euro-region”. National Identities 13 , 3 , 305–323.
https://doi.org/10.1080/14608944.2011.591374

Bullen , Paul and Jenny Onyx (2005) Measuring social capital in five communities in NSW. A Practitioner’s Guide. Coogee NSW: Management Alternatives Pty Ltd.

Burt , Ronald S. (1997) “A note on Social capital and network Content”. Social Networks 19 , 4 , 355–373.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8733(97)00003-8

Burt , Ronald. S. (2008) “Structural holes versus network closure as social capital”. In Nan Lin ,
K. Cook , and R. S. Burt , eds. Social capital: theory and research , 31–56. New Brunswich and New Jersey: Aldine Transaction.

Çarkoğlu , Ali and Cerem I. Cenker (2011) “Learning from name generator/interpreters in mass surveys: findings from Turkey”. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 10 , 160–171.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.01.019

Da Silva , A. Carlos , and Graça Viegas (2012) “Replantear la cooperación transfronteriza y los dilemas de la acción colectiva”. Cuadernos de Cooperación Territorial Europea 2 , 14–23.

Ehlers , N. and J. Buursink (2000) “Binational cities: people , institutions and structures”. In M. Van Der Velde and H. Van Houtum. Border , regions and people , eds.182–201 , London: Pion Limited.

Eisenhardt , Kathleen M. (1989) “Building theories from case study research”. Academy of Manage­ment Review 14 , 4 , 532–550.
https://doi.org/10.2307/258557
https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1989.4308385

Eisenhardt , Kathleen M. (1991) “Better stories and better constructs: the case for rigor and com­parative logic”. Academy of Management Review16 , 3 , 620–627.
https://doi.org/10.2307/258921
https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1991.4279496

Elorie , Fabien (2009) “El papel de las redes sociales en la actividad económica: el caso de los restauradores de Lille”. REDES , Revista Hispana para el análisis de Redes Sociales 16 , 8 , 204–227.

Esparza , Daniel (2010) “National identity and the other: imagining the EU from the Czech lands”. Nationalities Papers 38 , 3 , 413–436.
https://doi.org/10.1080/00905991003641947

Euregio (2006) “Annual activity report: strategic documents”. Available online at <http://www.euregio-heltal.org/about-2/strategic-documents/activity-reports/>. Accessed on June , 19 , 2012.

Freeman , Linton C. (2004) The development of social networks analysis: a study in the sociology of science. Vancouver , BC. Canada: Empirical Press.

González , Xavier , Antoni Guimerá , and Markus Perkmann (2010) “Las regiones transfronterizas: balance de la regionalización de la cooperación transfronteriza en Europa (1958–2007)”. Documents d'anàlisi geográfica 56 , 1 , 21–40.

González-Gómez , Teresa (2014) The social capital applied to cross-border cooperation in the cross-border regions of Alentejo-Algarve-Andalucia and Southern Finland-Estonia. Unpublished Doctoral Thesis , Department of Social Work and Sociology , University of Huelva , Spain. Available online at <http://rabida.uhu.es/dspace/handle/10272/8772>. Accessed on February 2 , 2018.

González-Gómez , Teresa and Estrella Gualda (2014) “Cross-border networks in Informal and formal cooperation in the border regions of Andalusia-Algarve-Aletenjo and South Finland-Estonia”. European Planning Studies 22 , 7 , 1407–1424.
https://doi.org/10.1080/09654313.2013.789487

Grim-Feinberg , Kate (2007) “Strengthening social capital through bilingual competence in a trans­national migrant community: Mexicans in upstate New York”. International Migration 45 , 1 , 177–208.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2435.2007.00400.x

Grix , Jonathan (2001) “Towards a theoretical approach to the study of cross-border cooperation”. Perspectives: Central European Review of International Affaire 17 , 5–9.

Grix , Jonathan and Václav Houžvička (2002) “Cross-border cooperation in theory and practice: the case of Czech-German borderland”. Actas Universitatis Carolinae Geographica 37 , 1 , 61–77.

Grix , Jonathan and Vanda Knowles (2002) “The Euroregion and the Maximization of social capital: pro Europa Viadrina”. Regional and Federal Studies 12 , 4 , 154–176.
https://doi.org/10.1080/714004770

Grootaert , Christiaan and Thierry Van Bastelaer (2002) “Understanding and measuring social capital: a synthesis of findings and recommendations from the Social Capital Initiative”. Washington , D.C. Forum Series on the Role of Institutions in Promoting Economic Growth. Forum 1. The Institutional Approach to Donor-Facilitated Economic Development. Session on Social Capital. Washington D.C.: Iris Center.
https://doi.org/10.1596/0-8213-5068-4

Grootaert , Christian , Deepa Narayan , J. Veronica Nyhan , and Michael Woolcock (2003) “Integrated questionnaire for the measurement of social capital (SC-IQ)”. Social Capital Thematic Group. The World Bank.

Gualda , Estrella , Antonio Fragoso , and Emilio Lucio (2013) “The border , the people and the river: development of the cross-border area between southern Spain and Portugal”. Community Development Journal 48 , 1 , 23–39.
https://doi.org/10.1093/cdj/bsr064

Hospers , Gert Jan (2006) “Borders , bridges and branding: the transformation of the Öresund region into an imagined space”. European Planning Studies 14 , 8 , 1015–1033.
https://doi.org/10.1080/09654310600852340

Hyvönen , Heli (2008) “The strength of native ties: social networks of Finnish immigrants in Estonia”. Trames 12 , 4 , 421–440.
https://doi.org/10.3176/tr.2008.4.04

INTERREG III A Southern Finland-Estonia 2000–2006. (2012) Projects. Available online at <http://www.interreg-finest.net/?id=1191>. Accessed on August 7 , 2012.

Jakobson , Mari-Liis , Pauliina Järvinen-Alenius , Pirkko Pitkänen , Rein Ruutsoo , Elisa Keski-Hirvelä , and Leif Kalev (2012) “The Emergence of Estonian–Finnish Transnational Space. In P. Pitkänen , A. Içduygu , D. Sert , eds. Migration and transformation: multi-level analysis of migrant transnationalism , 159–206 , New York , London: Springer.

Kohalike Omavalisutste Portaal (2011a) “Eesti omavalitsuste partnerid. Eesti-Soome”. [The portal of the local governments (2011a) “The partners of the the Estonian local governments. Estonia-Finland”] Available online at <http://portaal.ell.ee/4130>. Accessed on October 19 , 2011.

Kohalike Omavalisutste Portaal (2011b) “Eesti omavalitsuste partnerid. Partnersuhete arv Euroopas 2003.” [The portal of the local governments (2011b) “The partners of the the Estonian local governments. The amount of the partnerships in Europe 2003”] Available online at <http://portaal.ell.ee/4130>. Accessed on October 19 , 2011.

Kröger , A. , R. Mokka , M. Riala , P. Åman , A. Neuvonen , S. Vassinen , T. Kaskinen , and O. Kuitti­nen (2009) “Talsinki/Hellinna. Finland: Demos Helsinki. Available online at <http:// www.both.fi/2010/talsinki-book. Accessed on Septemeber , 20 , 2012.

Lauristin , Marju and Peeter Vihalemm (1998) “Social space as a factor of European integration”. In M. Heidmets , K. Loogma , T. Raudma , K. Toomel , and L. Viik eds. Estonian human develop­ment report , 68–72 , Tallinn: Eesti Koostöökogu.

Lepik , Katri-Liis (2009) “Eurorregions as mechanism for strengthening cross-border cooperation in the Baltic Sea Region”. Trames 13 , 3 , 265–284.
https://doi.org/10.3176/tr.2009.3.05

Löfgren , Orvar (2008) “Regionauts: the transformation of cross-border regions in Scandinavia”. European Urban and Regional Studies 15 , 3 , 195–209.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0969776408090418

Lozares , Carlos and Mireia Sala (2011) “Capital social , cohesión social y uso de la lengua”. REDES: Revista Hispana para el Análisis de Redes Sociales 20 , 1 , 204–231. 

Lozares , Carlos , Pedro López , Joan Miquel Verd , Joel Martí , and José Luis Molina (2011) “Cohesión , vinculación e integración sociales en el Marco del capital social”. REDES , Revista Hispana para el Análisis de Redes Sociales 20 , 1 , 1–28.

Lundén , Thomas (1973) “Interacction Across an “Open” International Boundary: Norway-Sweden”. In T. Lundén , ed. Boundaries and regions , 147–160 , Trieste: Instituto di Sociología Inter­nazionale.

Lundén , Thomas (2004) On the boundary: about human at the end of territory. Huddinge: Söder­törnshög­skola.

Medeiros , Eduardo (2011) “(Re)defining the Euroregion concept”. European Planning Studies 19 , 1 , 141–158.
https://doi.org/10.1080/09654313.2011.531920

Mirwaldt , Katja (2012) “The small projects fund and social capital formation in the Polish-German border region: an initial appraisal”. Regional Studies 46 , 2 , 259–272.
https://doi.org/10.1080/00343404.2010.490210

Nadalutti , Elisabetta (2011) “Old and new identities in the upper Adriatic: is a cross-border kind of citizenship emerging in cross-border regions?” Eurolimes , suppl. , 451–472.

Nawyn , Stephanie J. , Linda Gjokaj , De Brenna L. Agbényiga , and Breanne Grace (2012) “Linguistic isolation , social capital , and immigrant belonging”. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 41 , 3 , 255–282.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0891241611433623

Paasi , Anssi (2001) “Europe as a social process and discourse: consideration of place , boundaries and identity”. European Urban and Regional Studies 8 1 , 7–28.
https://doi.org/10.1177/096977640100800102

Pikner , Tarmo (2008) “Reorganizing cross-border governance capacity: the case of the Helsinki Tallinn Euregio”. European Urban and Regional Studies 15 , 3 , 211–227.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0969776408090414

Prokkola , Eeva. Kaisa (2008) “Resources and barriers in tourism development: cross-border coopera­tion , regionalization and destination building at the Finnish-Swedish border”. FENNIA Inter­national Journal of Geography 186 ,1 , 31–46.

Prokkola , Eeva-Kaisa , Kaj Zimmerbauer , and Fredriika Jakola (2012) “Performance of regional identity in the implementation of European cross-border initiatives”. European Urban and Regional Studies. Available online at <http://eur.sagepub.com/content/early/2012/11/22/ 0969776412465629>. Accessed on February 20 , 2013. DOI: 10.1177/0969776412465629
https://doi.org/10.1177/0969776412465629

Radvilavicius , Sarunas (2004) “Cross-border cooperation in Baltic Countries and north-west Russia. Vilnius: Nordic Council of Ministers Information Office in Lithuania”. Available online at <http://ec.europa.eu/ourcoast/download.cfm?fileID=988>. Accessed on December 2 , 2012

Rausmaa , Heikki (2008) Tuglase leek loidab. Tuglase Seltsi ja Soome-Eesti suhete ajalugu. [The Flame of Tuglas flares. The history of the Tuglas Society and the relations between Finland and Estonia] Tallinn: Eesti Keele Sihtasutus.

Rytilä , Pekka (1999). “LACE PHARE CBC. Draft Assessment Report. Estonia”. Available online at <http://www.aebr.eu/files/publications/AR_Est.en.pdf>. Accessed on May 15 , 2010.

Sabec , K. (2007) “Ethnic , regional and national identities in the context of European cross border cooperation opportunities: a case study of Italian Ethnic community in Slovene Istria”. Two Homelands 25 , 249–270.

Simonsen , Kirsten (2004) “‘Europe’ , national identities and multiple others”. European Urban and Regional Studies11 , 357–362.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0969776404046268

Smith , Anthony D. (1991) National identity. Reno , NV: University of Nevada Press.

Spellerberg , Anne (2001) “Framework for the measurement of social capital in New Zealand. Statistic New Zealand”. Research and Analytical Report 14 , 1–46.

Stone , Wendy (2001) “Measuring social capital: towards a theoretically informed measurement framework for researching social capital in family and community life”. Research Paper 24 , 1–38.

Van Houtum , Henk (2000) “An overview of European geographical research on borders and border regions”. Journal of Borderlands Studies 15 , 1 , 57–83.
https://doi.org/10.1080/08865655.2000.9695542

Vujadinovic , Dragica (2011) “On European identity”. Synthesis Philosophica 26 , 1 , 117–132.

Zhurzhenko , Tatiana (2004) “Cross-border cooperation and transformation of regional identities in the Ukrainian-Russian borderlands: towards a Euroregion "Slobozhanshchyna"? (Part 2)”. Nationalities Papers 32 , 2 , 497–514.
https://doi.org/10.1080/0090599042000230296

Zillmer , Sabine (2005) Chances for German-Polish cooperation. a German point of view. (IRS Working Paper.) Erkner: Leibniz-Institut für Regionalentwicklung und Strukturplanung.

Zivkovic , Jovan (2009) “National minorities from Bulgaria , Serbia and Macedonia towards regionalism and the cultural autonomy”. Facta Universitatis: Series Philosophy , Sociology , Psychology and History 8 , 1 , 37–53.

 
Back

Current Issue: Vol. 22, Issue 3, 2018




Publishing schedule:
No. 1: 20 March
No. 2: 20 June
No. 3: 20 September
No. 4: 20 December