headerpos: 9460
 
 
  Estonian Journal of Ecology

ISSN 1736-7549 (electronic)   ISSN 1736-602X (print)
An international scientific journal

Formerly: Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences: Biology, Ecology
(ISSN 1406-0914)
Published since 1952
 

Estonian Journal of Ecology

ISSN 1736-7549 (electronic)   ISSN 1736-602X (print)
An international scientific journal

Formerly: Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences: Biology, Ecology
(ISSN 1406-0914)
Published since 1952
 

Publisher
Journal Information
» Abstractring/Indexing
List of Issues
» 2014
Vol. 63, Issue 4
Vol. 63, Issue 3
Vol. 63, Issue 2
Vol. 63, Issue 1
» 2013
» 2012
» 2011
» 2010
» 2009
» 2008
» 2007
» Back Issues
» Back issues (full texts)
  in Google
Publisher
» Other Journals
» Staff

Testing and development of different metrics and indexes describing submerged aquatic vegetation for the assessment of the ecological status of semi-enclosed coastal water bodies in the NE Baltic Sea; pp. 262–281

(Full article in PDF format) doi: 10.3176/eco.2014.4.05


Authors

Kaire Torn, Georg Martin, Liis Rostin

Abstract

A national assessment system for the classification of the ecological status of coastal waters according to the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive was established in Estonia in the year 2007. The Estonian Phytobenthos Index was used to assess the ecological status of coastal waters based on submerged aquatic vegetation. After the testing period it appeared that the selected method did not respond to anthropogenic pressure in two national water types: the Väinameri and Pärnu Bay. During this study new indexes were developed and validated against pressure for these areas. The PCF index was combined from the proportion of perennial species, charophytes, and Fucus spp. This index is suitable for the assessment of the ecological status in the Väinameri area. In Pärnu Bay the depth distribution of higher plants and the proportion of opportunistic species showed the strongest correlation with eutrophication variables. These metrics were combined into the HPO index. The class boundaries for assessing the ecological status of water quality were determined for both indexes. The paper describes the calculation of the indexes.

Keywords

Baltic Sea, ecological status classification, submerged aquatic vegetation, coastal water, Water Framework Directive.

References

Andersen , J. H. , Conley , D. , and Hedal , S. 2004. Paleo-ecology , reference conditions and classi­fication of ecological status: the EU Water Framework Directive in practice. Marine Pollution Bulletin , 49 , 282–290.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2004.04.014

Appelgren , K. and Mattila , J. 2005. Variation in vegetation communities in shallow bays of the northern Baltic Sea. Aquatic Botany , 83 , 1–13.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquabot.2005.05.001

Balsby , T. J. S. , Carstensen , J. , and Krause-Jensen , D. 2013. Sources of uncertainty in estimation of eelgrass depth limits. Hydrobiologia , 704 , 311–323.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10750-012-1374-8

Carletti , A. and Heiskanen , A.-S. (eds) 2009. Water Framework Directive intercalibration technical report. Part 3: Coastal and Transitional Waters. JRC–IES EUR 23838 EN/3. http://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/bitstream/111111111/10473/1/3010_08–volumecoast.pdf (accessed 17.06.2014).

Carstensen , J. , Krause-Jensen , D. , Markager , S. , Timmermann , K. , and Windolf , J. 2013. Water clarity and eelgrass responses to nitrogen reductions in the eutrophic Skive Fjord , Denmark. Hydrobiologia , 704 , 293–309.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10750-012-1266-y

Carvalho , L. , Lepistö , L. , Rissanen , J. , Pietiläinen , O.-P. , Rekolainen , S. , Torok , L. , Solheim , A. L. , Saloranta , T. , Ptacnik , R. , Tartari , G. , Cardoso , A. C. , Premazzi , G. , Gunn , I. , Penning , E. , Hanganu , J. , Hellsten , S. , Orhan , I. , and Navodaru , I. 2006. Nutrients and eutrophication in lakes. In Indicators and Methods for the Ecological Status Assessment Under the Water Framework Directive (Solimini , A. G. , Cardoso , A. C. , and Heiskanen , A.-S. , eds) , pp. 33–80. European Communities.

Conley , D. J. , Carstensen , J. , Ærtebjerg , G. , Christensen , P. B. , Dalsgaard , T. , Jørgen , L. S. , Hansen , J. L. S. , and Josefson , A. B. 2007. Long-term changes and impacts of hypoxia in Danish coastal waters. Ecological Applications , 17(5) , 165–184.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/05-0766.1

European Commission. 2000. Directive 200/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy. Official Journal of the European Communities , L 327/1.

European Commission. 2013. Commission Decision of 20 September 2013 establishing , pursuant to Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council , the values of the Member State monitoring system classifications as a result of the intercalibration exercise and repealing Decision 2008/915/EC. Official Journal of the European Communities , L 266/1.

Hansen , J. P. and Snickars , M. 2014. Applying macrophyte community indicators to assess anthro­pogenic pressures on shallow soft bottom. Hydrobiologia , 738 , 171–189.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10750-014-1928-z

Henriksen , P. 2009. Reference conditions for phytoplankton at Danish Water Framework Directive intercalibration sites. Hydrobiologia , 629 , 255–262.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10750-009-9767-z

Juanes , J. A. , Guinda , X. , Puente , A. , and Revilla , J. A. 2008. Macroalgae , a suitable indicator
of the ecological status of coastal rocky communities in the NE Atlantic. Ecological Indicators , 8 , 351–359.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2007.04.005

Karez , R. , Engelbert , S. , Kraufvelin , P. , Pedersen , M. F. , and Sommer , U. 2004. Biomass response and changes in composition of ephemeral macroalgal assemblages along an experimental gradient of nutrient enrichment. Aquatic Botany , 78 , 103–117.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquabot.2003.09.008

Kotta , J. , Jaanus , A. , and Kotta , I. 2008a. Matsalu and Haapsalu Bays. In Ecology of Baltic Coastal Waters (Schiewer , U. , ed.) , pp. 245–258. Springer-Verlag , Berlin.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-73524-3_11

Kotta , J. , Lauringson , V. , Martin , G. , Simm , M. , Kotta , I. , Herkül , K. , and Ojaveer , H. 2008b. Gulf of Riga and Pärnu Bay. In Ecology of Baltic Coastal Waters (Schiewer , U. , ed.) , pp. 217–243. Springer-Verlag , Berlin.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-73524-3_10

Kotta , J. , Lauringson , V. , Kaasik , A. , and Kotta , I. 2012. Defining the coastal water quality in Estonia based on benthic invertebrate communities. Estonian Journal of Ecology , 61 , 86–105.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3176/eco.2012.2.02

Kovtun , A. , Torn , K. , and Kotta , J. 2009. Long-term changes in a northern Baltic macrophyte community. Estonian Journal of Ecology , 58 , 270–285.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3176/eco.2009.4.03

Kovtun-Kante , A. , Torn , K. , and Kotta , J. 2014. In situ production of charophyte communities under reduced light conditions in a brackish water ecosystem. Estonian Journal of Ecology , 63 , 28–38.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3176/eco.2014.1.03

Kuuppo , P. , Blauw , A. , Møhlenberg , F. , Kaas , H. , Henriksen , P. , Krause-Jensen , D. , Ærtebjerg , G. , Bäck , S. , Erftemeijer , P. , Caspar , M. , Carvalho , S. , and Heiskanen , A.-S. 2006. Nutrients and eutrophication in coastal and transitional waters. In Indicators and Methods for the Ecological Status Assessment Under the Water Framework Directive (Solimini , A. G. , Cardoso , A. C. , and Heiskanen , A.-S. , eds) , pp. 33–80. European Communities.

Marbà , N. , Krause-Jensen , D. , Alcoverro , T. , Birk , S. , Pedersen , A. , Neto , J. M. , Orfanidis , S. , Garmendia , J. M. , Muxika , I. , Borja , A. , Dencheva , K. , and Duarte , C. M. 2013. Diversity of European seagrass indicators: patterns within and across regions. Hydrobiologia , 704 , 265–278.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10750-012-1403-7

Marquardt , R. and Schubert , H. 2009. Photosynthetic characterisation of Chara vulgaris in bio­remediation ponds. Charophytes , 2(1) , 1–8.

Martin , G. 2000. Phytobenthic Communities of the Gulf of Riga and the Inner Sea of the West-Estonian Archipelago. Tartu University Press , Tartu.

Mascaró , O. , Alcoverro , T. , Dencheva , K. , Díez , I. , Gorostiaga , J. M. , Krause-Jensen , D. , Balsby , T. J. S. , Marbà , N. , Muxika , I. , Neto , J. M. , Nikolić , V. , Orfanidis , S. , Pedersen , A. , Pérez , M. , and Romero , J. 2013. Exploring the robustness of macrophyte-based classification methods
to assess the ecological status of coastal and transitional ecosystems under the Water Framework Directive. Hydrobiologia , 704 , 279–291.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10750-012-1426-0

Munsterhjelm , R. 2005. Natural Succession and Human-induced Changes in the Soft-bottom Macrovegetation of Shallow Brackish Bays on the Southern Coast of Finland. Ph.D. thesis. Walter and Andrée de Nottbeck Found. Scientific Reports No. 26 , Helsinki.

Nijboer , R. C. , Johnson , R. K. , Verdonschot , P. F. M. , Sommerhäuser , M. , and Buffagni , A. 2004. Establishing reference conditions for European streams. Hydrobiologia , 516 , 91–105.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:HYDR.0000025260.30930.f4

Paavel , B. , Arst , H. , Metsamaa , L. , Toming , K. , and Reinart , A. 2011. Optical investigations of CDOM-rich coastal waters in Pärnu Bay. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences , 60 , 102–112.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3176/earth.2011.2.04

Penning , W. E. , Dudley , B. , Mjelde , M. , Hellsten , S. , Hanganu , J. , Kolada , A. , van den Berg , M. , Poikane , S. , Phillips , G. , Willby , N. , and Ecke , F. 2008. Using aquatic macrophyte community indices to define the ecological status of European lakes. Aquatic Ecology , 42 , 253–264.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10452-008-9183-x

Rohde , S. , Hiebenthal , C. , Wahl , M. , Karez , R. , and Bischof , K. 2008. Decreased depth distribution of Fucus vesiculosus (Phaeophyceae) in the Western Baltic: effects of light deficiency and epibionts on growth and photosynthesis. European Journal of Phycology , 43 , 143–150.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09670260801901018

Rönnberg , C. and Bonsdorff , E. 2004. Baltic Sea eutrophication: area-specific ecological consequences. Hydrobiologia , 514 , 227–241.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:HYDR.0000019238.84989.7f

Scheffer , M. , Carpenter , S. , Foley , J. A. , Folke , C. , and Walkerk , B. 2001. Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems. Nature , 413 , 591–596.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/35098000

Schramm , W. 1999. Factors influencing seaweed responses to eutrophication: some results from EU-project EUMAC. Journal of Applied Phycology , 11 , 69–78.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1008076026792

Schubert , H. and Blindow , I. (eds). 2003. Charophytes of the Baltic Sea. BMB Publication No. 19. Koeltz Scientific , Königstein.

Selig , U. , Eggert , A. , Schories , D. , Schubert , M. , Blümel , C. , and Schubert , H. 2007. Ecological classi­fication of macroalgae and angiosperm communities of inner coastal waters in the southern Baltic Sea. Ecological Indicators , 7 , 665–678.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2006.07.006

StatSoft. 2013. Electronic Statistics Textbook. http://www.statsoft.com/textbook/ (accessed 17.06.2014).

Steinhardt , T. , Karez , R. , Selig , U. , and Schubert , H. 2009. The German procedure for the assess­ment of ecological status in relation to the biological quality element “Macroalgae & Angiosperms” pursuant to the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) for inner coastal waters of the Baltic Sea. Rostocker Meeresbiologische Beiträge , 22 , 7–42.

Suursaar , Ü. , Kullas , T. , and Otsmann , M. 2001. The influence of currents and waves on ecological conditions of the Väinameri. Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences. Biology. Ecology , 50 , 231–247.

Suursaar , Ü. , Kullas , T. , and Otsman , M. 2002. Flow modelling in the Pärnu Bay and the Kihnu Strait. Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences. Engineering , 8 , 189–203.

Torn , K. 2008. Distribution and Ecology of Charophytes in the Baltic Sea. Ph.D. thesis. Dissertationes Biologicae Universitatis Tartuensis , 143. University of Tartu , Tartu.

Torn , K. and Martin , G. 2003. Changes in the distribution of charophyte species in enclosed seabays of western Estonia. Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences. Biology. Ecology , 52 , 134–140.

Torn , K. and Martin , G. 2011. Assessment method for the ecological status of Estonian coastal waters based on submerged aquatic vegetation. In Sustainable Development and Planning (Brebbia , C. A. and Beriatos , E. , eds) , pp. 443–452. WIT Press , United Kingdom.

Torn , K. and Martin , G. 2012. Response of submerged aquatic vegetation to eutrophication-related environment descriptors in coastal waters of the NE Baltic Sea. Estonian Journal of Ecology , 61 , 106–118.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3176/eco.2012.2.03

Torn , K. , Krause-Jensen , D. , and Martin , G. 2006. Present and past depth distribution of bladderwrack (Fucus vesiculosus) in the Baltic Sea. Aquatic Botany , 84(1) , 53–62.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquabot.2005.07.011

Torn , K. , Kovtun-Kante , A. , Herkül , K. , Martin , G. , and Mäemets , H. 2014. Distribution and predictive occurrence model of charophytes in Estonian waters. Aquatic Botany , in press.

Trei , T. 1984. Long-term changes in the bottom flora of Haapsalu Bay. Limnologica , 15 , 351–352.

Trei , T. 1991. Taimed Läänemere põhjal. Valgus , Tallinn (in Estonian).

Wallentinus , I. 1979. Environmental Influences on Benthic Macrovegetation in the Trosa–Askö area , Northern Baltic Proper. II. The Ecology of Macroalgae and Submersed Phanerogams. Contributions from the Askö Laboratory 25. Stockholm University.

Willby , N. , Birk , S. , Poikane , S. , and van de Bund , W. 2014. Water Framework Directive Intercalibration Manual: Procedure to Fit New or Updated Classification Methods to the Results of a Completed Intercalibration. Publications Office of the European Union , Luxembourg.

Yousef , M. A. M. and Schubert , H. 2001. Assessment of the occurrence of Charophytes in shallow coastal waters of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern , Germany. Schriften für Naturschutz und Landschaftspflege , 72 , 9–16.

 
Back

Current Issue: Vol. 63, Issue 4, 2014




Publishing schedule:
No. 1: 20 March
No. 2: 20 June
No. 3: 20 September
No. 4: 20 December