headerpos: 9353
 
 
  Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences

ISSN 1736-7557 (electronic)  ISSN 1736-4728 (print)
An international scientific journal

Formerly: Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences, Geology
Published since 1952

Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences

ISSN 1736-7557 (electronic)  ISSN 1736-4728 (print)
An international scientific journal

Formerly: Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences, Geology
Published since 1952

Publisher
Journal Information
» Editorial Board
» Editorial Policy
» Article Publication Charges
» Archival Policy
» Copyright and Licensing Policy
Guidelines for Authors
» Instructions to Authors
Guidelines for Reviewers
» Review Form
Open Access
List of Issues
» 2019
» 2018
» 2017
» 2016
» 2015
» 2014
» 2013
» 2012
» 2011
Vol. 60, Issue 4
Vol. 60, Issue 3
Vol. 60, Issue 2
Vol. 60, Issue 1
» 2010
» 2009
» 2008
» 2007
» Back issues (full texts)
  in Google
» Back issues (full texts)
  in Google Ecology
» Back issues in ETERA
Keemia. Geoloogia
» ETERA_scan
Subscription Information
Internet Links
Support & Contact
Publisher
» Other Journals
» Staff

The sedimentary sequence from the Lake Ķūži outcrop, central Latvia: implications for late glacial stratigraphy; pp. 113–122

(Full article in PDF format) doi: 10.3176/earth.2011.2.05


Authors

Tiiu Koff, Jaanus Terasmaa

Abstract

Sediment samples from an outcrop in the near-shore area of Lake Ķūži (Vidzeme Heights, Central Latvia) were investigated using palaeobotanical (pollen and macrofossil analysis) and lithological (grain-size analysis) methods and accelerator mass spectrometry 14C dating. A dark, organic-rich sediment layer was found below 1.7 m of sandy layers approximately 30 cm above the present lake level. Radiocarbon dating of a wood sample from the lowermost layer (11 050 ± 60 14C BP, 13 107–12 721 cal BP) shows that the layer is of late glacial age. The composition of the pollen spectra is characterized by Betula nana, Cyperaceae pollen and spores of Equisetum, confirming that the lowermost sediments were formed during the late glacial. Fossils of obligate aquatic organisms in the upper layer, which include oospores of Characeae and seeds of Potamogeton, indicate an open water environment. Pollen of Myriophyllum and Potamogeton and non-pollen palynomorphs, such as algal Botryococcus and Pediastrum cf. boryanum, confirm this conclusion. The pollen assemblage from the greyish loam layer following this lacustrine phase shows a pattern characteristic of the Younger Dryas vegetation before the start of the real expansion of birch forests at the beginning of the Holocene.

Keywords

late glacial, palynostratigraphy, plant macrofossils, Vidzeme Heights, Latvia.

References

Allen , J. R. L. & Thornley , D. M. 2004. Laser granulometry of Holocene estuarine silts: effects of hydrogen peroxide treatment. Holocene , 14 , 290–295.
doi:10.1191/0959683604hl681rr

Amon , L. , Veski , S. , Heinsalu , A. & Saarse , L. 2009. New late-glacial chronology , environmental and climatic conditions in Southern Estonia: evidence from lake Nakri. In Extent and Timing of the Weichselian Glaciation Southeast of the Baltic Sea: Abstracts & Guidebook (Kalm , V. , Laumets , L. & Hang , T. , eds) , pp. 73–74. The INQUA Peribaltic Working Group Field Symposium in southern Estonia and northern Latvia , September 13–17 , 2009. Tartu Ülikooli Kirjastus , Tartu.

Amon , L. , Heinsalu , A. & Veski , S. 2010. Late glacial multiproxy evidence of vegetation development and environmental change at Solova , southeastern Estonia. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences , 59 , 151–163.
doi:10.3176/earth.2010.2.05

Andreola , F. , Castellini , E. , Manfredini , T. & Romagnoli , M. 2004. The role of sodium hexametaphosphate in the dissolution process of kaolinite and kaolin. Journal of the European Ceramic Society , 24 , 2113–2124.
doi:10.1016/S0955-2219(03)00366-2

Bates , C. D. , Coxon , P. & Gibbard , P. L. 1978. A new method for the preparation of clay-rich sediment samples for palynological investigations. New Phytologist , 81 , 459–463.
doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.1978.tb02651.x

Beijerinck , W. 1947. Zadenatlas der Nederlandsche Flora. Veenman and Zonen , Wageningen , 316 pp.

Birks , H. H. 1980. Plant macrofossils in Quaternary lake sediments. Archive Hydrobiologia , 15 , 1–60.

Birks , H. H. 2001. Plant macrofossils. In Tracking Environmental Change Using Lake Sediments. Vol. 3 , Terrestrial , Algal and Siliceous Indicators (Smol , J. P. , Birks , H. J. B. & Last , W. M. , eds) , pp. 49–74. Kluwer Academic Publishers , Dordrecht.

Birks , H. H. & Wright , H. E. 2000. Introduction to the reconstruction of the late-glacial and early-Holocene aquatic ecosystems at Kråkenes Lake , Norway. Journal of Paleolimnology , 23 , 1–5.
doi:10.1023/A:1008029201006

Bronk Ramsey , C. 2009. Bayesian analysis of radiocarbon dates. Radiocarbon , 51(1) , 337–360.

Cappers , R. T. J. , Bekker , R. M. & Jans , J. E. A. 2006. Digitale Zadenatlas van Nederland [Digital Seed Atlas of the Netherlands]. Groningen Archaeological Studies , 4. Barkhuis Publishing & Groningen University Library; XXVI , 502 pp.

Carver , R. E. (ed.). 1971. Procedures in Sedimentary Petrology. Wiley Interscience , New York , 653 pp.

Danilans , I. J. 1973. Chetvertichnye otlozheniya Latvii [Quaternary Deposits of Latvia]. Zinatne , Riga , 275 pp. [in Russian].

Galenieks , P. 1936. Latvijas floras vēsture. Latvijas daba [History of Latvian flora. Nature in Latvia]. In Latvijas zeme , daba un tauta , 2. sēj. [The Land , Nature and Folk of Latvia , Vol. 2] , pp. 3–33. Valters un Rapa , Rīga [in Latvian].

Giesecke , T. & Bennett , K. D. 2004. The Holocene spread of Picea abies (L.) Karst. in Fennoscandia and adjacent areas. Journal of Biogeography , 31 , 1523–1548.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2004.01095.x

Grimm , E. C. 1990. TILIA and TILIA GRAPH. PC spread­sheet and graphics software for pollen data. INQUA , Working Group on Data-Handling Methods , Newsletter , 4 , 5–7.

Grosse-Brauckmann , G. & Streitz , B. 1992. Pflanzliche Makro­fossilien mittel-europäischer Torfe III. Früchte , Samen und einige Gewebe. TELMA , 22 , 53–102.

Heikkilä , M. , Fontana , S. L. & Seppä , H. 2009. Rapid Lateglacial tree population dynamics and ecosystem changes in the eastern Baltic region. Journal of Quaternary Science , 24 , 802–815.
doi:10.1002/jqs.1254

Ilves , E. & Mäemets , H. 1987. Results of radiocarbon and palynological analyses of coastal deposits of lakes Tuuljärv and Vaskna. In Palaeohydrology of the Temperate Zone. Vol. III – Mires and Lakes (Raukas , A. & Saarse , L. , eds) , pp. 108–130. Valgus , Tallinn.

Kalm , V. 2006. Pleistocene chronostratigraphy in Estonia , southeastern sector of the Scandinavian glaciations. Quaternary Science Reviews , 25 , 960–975.
doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2005.08.005

Kangur , M. 2005. Palynostratigraphy of Holocene lake sediments on the Otepää Heights , southern Estonia. Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences , Geology , 54 , 52–68.

Kangur , M. , Koff , T. , Punning , J.-M. , Vainu , M. & Vandel , E. 2009. Lithology and biostratigraphy of the Holocene succession of Lake Ķūži , Vidzeme Heights (Central Latvia). Geological Quarterly , 53 , 199–208.

Katz , N. Ya. , Katz , S. V. & Skobeeva , E. I. 1977. Atlas rastitel¢nykh ostatkov v torfakh [Atlas of Plant Remains in Peat]. Nedra , Moscow , 371 pp. [in Russian].

Koff , T. & Vandel , E. 2008. Spatial distribution of macrofossil assemblages in surface sediments of two small lakes in Estonia. Estonian Journal of Ecology , 57 , 5–20.
doi:10.3176/eco.2008.1.01

Konert , M. & Vandenberghe , J. 1997. Comparison of layer grain size analysis with pipette and sieve analysis: a solution for the underestimation of the clay fraction. Sedimentology , 44 , 523–535.
doi:10.1046/j.1365-3091.1997.d01-38.x

Kupriyanova , L. A. & Aleshina , L. A. 1972. Pyl¢tsa i spory rastenii flory Evropejskoj chasti SSSR [Pollen and Spores of Plants from the Flora of the European Part of the USSR. I.] The Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Nauka , Leningrad , 171 pp. [in Russian].

Latałowa , M. & van der Knaap , W. P. 2006. Late Quaternary expansion of Norway spruce Picea abies (L.) Karst. in Europe according to pollen data. Quaternary Science Reviews , 25 , 2780–2805.
doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2006.06.007

Lowe , J. J. , Rasmussen , S. O. , Björck , S. , Hoek , W. Z. , Steffensen , J. P. , Walker , M. J. C. & Yu , Z. C. 2008. Synchronisation of palaeoenvironmental events in the North Atlantic region during the Last Termination: a revised protocol recommended by the INTIMATE group. Quaternary Science Reviews , 27 , 6–17.
doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2007.09.016

Lu , H. & An , Z. 1997. Pretreatment methods in loess-palaeosol granulometry. Chinese Science Bulletin , 42 , 237–240.

Mikutta , R. , Kleber , M. , Kaiser , K. & Jahn , R. 2005. Review: removal of organic matter from soils using hydrogen peroxide , sodium hypochlorite and disodium peroxodi­sulfate. Soil Science Society of America Journal , 69 , 120–135.
doi:10.2136/sssaj2005.0120

Moore , P. , Webb , J. & Collinson , M. 1991. Pollen Analysis. Blackwell , Oxford , 216 pp.

Murray , M. R. 2002. Is laser particle size determination possible for carbonate-rich lake sediments? Journal of Paleolimnology , 27 , 173–183.
doi:10.1023/A:1014281412035

Ozola , I. , Cerina , A. & Kalnina , L. 2010. Reconstruction of palaeovegetation and sedimentation conditions in the area of ancient Lake Burtnieks , northern Latvia. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences , 59 , 164–179.
doi:10.3176/earth.2010.2.06

Pirrus , R. & Raukas , A. 1996. Late-glacial stratigraphy in Estonia. Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences , Geology , 45 , 34–45.

Punning , J.-M. , Koff , T. & Martma , T. 2000. Stable isotope and pollen records in marl sections from some Estonian lakes and their palaeoclimatic interpretation. Estonia. Geographical Studies , 8 , 20–34.

Punning , J.-M. , Koff , T. , Martma , T. & Possnert , G. 2002. Stable isotope and pollen stratigraphy in marl sediments from Lake Ilmjärv (central Estonia). Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences , Geology , 51 , 180–192.

Puusepp , L. & Kangur , M. 2010. Linking diatom community dynamics to terrestrial vegetation changes: a palaeo­limnological case study of Lake Ķūži , Vidzeme Heights (Central Latvia). Estonian Journal of Ecology , 59 , 259–280.
doi:10.3176/eco.2010.4.02

Raukas , A. 2003. Progress in Estonian Quaternary stratigraphy during the last decade. Geologija (Vilnius) , 41 , 36–43.

Raukas , A. 2009. When and how did the continental ice retreat from Estonia? Quaternary International , 207 , 50–57.
doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2008.11.010

Reimer , P. J. , Baillie , M. G. L. , Bard , E. , Bayliss , A. , Beck , J. W. , Blackwell , P. G. , Bronk Ramsey , C. , Buck , C. E. , Burr , G. S. , Edwards , R. L. , Friedrich , M. , Grootes , P. M. , Guilderson , T. P. , Hajdas , I. , Heaton , T. J. , Hogg , A. G. , Hughen , K. A. , Kaiser , K. F. , Kromer , B. , McCormac , F. G. , Manning , S. W. , Reimer , R. W. , Richards , D. A. , Southon , J. R. , Talamo , S. , Turney , C. S. M. , van der Plicht , J. & Weyhenmeyer , C. E. 2009. IntCal09 and Marine09radiocarbon age calibration curves , 0–50 ,000 years cal BP. Radiocarbon , 51(4) , 1111–1150.

Rinterknecht , V. R. , Clark , P. U. , Raisbeck , G. M. , Yiou , F. , Bitinas , A. , Brook , E. J. , Marks , L. , Zelcs , V. , Lunkka , J.-P. , Pavlovskaya , I. E. , Piotrowski , J. A. & Raukas , A. 2006. The last deglaciation of the southeastern sector of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet. Science , 311 , 1449–1452.
doi:10.1126/science.1120702

Saarse , L. , Niinemets , E. , Amon , L. , Heinsalu , A. , Veski , S. & Sohar , K. 2009. Development of the late glacial Baltic basin and the succession of vegetation cover as revealed at Palaeolake Haljala , northern Estonia. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences , 58 , 317–333.
doi:10.3176/earth.2009.4.10

Sarmaja-Korjonen , K. , Seppänen , A. & Bennike , O. 2006. Pediastrum algae from the classic late glacial Bølling Sø site , Denmark: response of aquatic biota to climate change. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology , 138 , 95–107.
doi:10.1016/j.revpalbo.2005.12.003

Schumacher , B. A. 2002. Methods for the Determination of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in Soils and Sediments. Ecological Risk Assessment Support Center , Las Vegas , 25 pp.

Schweingruber , F. H. 1990. Microscopic Wood Anatomy. Swiss Federal Institute for Forest , Snow and Landscape Research , 226 pp.

Stančikaite , M. , Šinkūnas , P , Šeirienė , V. & Kisielienė , D. 2008. Patterns and chronology of the Lateglacial environmental development at Pamerkiai and Kašučiai , Lithuania. Quaternary Science Reviews , 27 , 127–147.

Stančikaite , M. , Kisielienė , D. , Moe , D. & Vaikutiene , G. 2009. Lateglacial and early Holocene environmental changes in northeastern Lithuania. Quaternary International , 207 , 80–92.
doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2008.10.009

Stelle , V. J. 1963. Late Glacial plant remains near Ane in the vicinity of Jelgava. In Voprosy chetvertichnoj geologii II [Questions on Quaternary Geology , Trudy instituta geologii , XI , 125–133. Riga [in Russian , with English summary].

Stelle , V. 1968. Stratigrafiya pozdnelednikovykh otlozhenii na territorii Latvijskoj SSR [Stratigraphy of the late glacial deposits on the territory of Latvian SSR]. Manuscript , Cand. Sci. Dissertation , Tallinn [in Russian].

Thomson , P. 1929. Die regionale Entwicklungsgeschichte der Wälder Estlands. Publications of the Geological Institution of the University Tartu , 19 , 1–87.

Turney , C. S. M. , Coope , G. R. , Harkness , D. D , Lowe , J. J. & Walker , M. J. C. 2000. Implications for the dating of Wisconsinan (Weichselian) Late-Glacial events of systematic radiocarbon age differences between terrestrial plant macrofossils from a site in SW Ireland. Quaternary Research , 53 , 114–121.
doi:10.1006/qres.1999.2087

Vaasma , T. 2008. Grain-size analysis of lacustrine sediments: a comparison of pre-treatment methods. Estonian Journal of Ecology , 57 , 231–243.
doi:10.3176/eco.2008.4.01

van Geel , B. 2001. Non-pollen palynomorphs. In Tracking Environmental Change Using Lake Sediments. Vol. 3: Terrestrial , Algal and Siliceous Indicators 1 (Smol , J. P. , Birks , H. J. B. & Last , W. M. , eds) , pp. 99–119. Kluwer Academic Publishers , Dordrecht.

Vasari , Y. , Kuznetsov , O. L. , Lavrova , N. B. , Shelekova , T. S. & Vasari , A. 2007. Alinlampi , a Late-Glacial site in the northern Karelian Republic. Annales Botanici Fennici , 44 , 42–55.

Veski , S. , Amon , L. & Heinsalu , A. 2008. Estonian Late-Glacial chronology , vegetation and environment: multiproxy evidence from lake Nakri , Southern Estonia. In (NEPAL) Nordic Network of Palaeoclimatology , Second Conference , Abstracts of Oral Presentations and Posters , p. 24. Backagarden , Höör , Sweden , September 26–27 , 2008.

Wohlfarth , B. , Filimonova , L. , Bennike , O. , Björkman , L. , Brunnberg , L. , Lavrova , N. , Demidov , I. & Possnert , G. 2002. Late-Glacial and Early Holocene environmental and climatic change at Lake Tambichozero , Southeastern Russian Karelia. Quaternary Research , 58 , 261–272.
doi:10.1006/qres.2002.2386
 
Back

Current Issue: Vol. 68, Issue 3, 2019




Publishing schedule:

No. 1: 20 March
No. 2: 20 June
No. 3: 20 September
No. 4: 20 December